Introduction: Natural Gas Technology; Underground Injection and Storage; Rock and Material Mechanics for Energy Resources; Alternative and Unconventional Energy Sources; Energy Co Generation Systems; Fundamental Combustion of Energy Resources; Advanced Energy Resources-Systems-Analyses; Energy Resource Recovery from Biomass and Solid Wastes; Environmental Aspects of Energy Resources; Pollution Control in Energy Technology; Economics of Energy Resource Exploitation.
- Energy may be defined as, “any property, which can be converted into work.” (or)
- Energy is defined as, “the capacity to do work.”
- Forms of energy, some of immediately used to do work; others require some process of transformation.
- Life is unthinkable without energy.
- All the developmental activities in the world are directly or indirectly dependent upon energy.
- Energy production and energy utilization are the indicators of a country’s progress.
Development of energy:
- The first form of energy is the fire.
- The early man discovered fire and used it for cooking and heating purposes
- Wood is the main source of energy, which is later replaced by coal.
- Coal is now being replaced by the oil and gas.
- Now due to insufficient availability and price hike, people started of thinking and using several alternative sources of Energy.
- Wood coal oil alternate energy (solar, wind, tidal energy).
Growing energy Needs:
- Energy is essential to all human societies.
- All industrial process like, mining, transport, living, heating and cooling in buildings, all require energy.
- With the demands of growing population, the world is facing further energy deficit,
- Our life style is also changing from al simple way of life to luxurious life style. At present 95% of the commercial energy is available only from the fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas, and are not going to last for many years. It would be really ironic if fuel becomes more expensive than food.
Energy Distribution –World Scenario:
- U.S.A and Canada 5% of the world’s population- consume 25% of the available world’s energy resources.
- It has been observed, that in U.S.A and Canada an average person consumes 300 GJ (Giga Joules; equal to 60 barrels of oil) per year.
- But in poor countries like Bhutan, Nepal and Ethiopia, an average person consumes less than 1 GJ per year.
- So a person in a developed country consumes almost as much energy in a single day as one person consumes in a whole year in a poor country.
- From the above scenario it is clear that our life style and standard of living are closely related to energy needs.
Renewable energy resources (or) non-conventional energy resources: Natural resources can be regenerated continuously and are inexhaustible. They can be used again and again in an endless manner.
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). Renewable energy is an alternative to fossil fuels and was commonly called alternative energy in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2009, about 16% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.8% and is growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation was around 19.4%, with 16.1% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3.3% from new renewables.
Wind power is growing at the rate of 21% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 238 gigawatts (GW) in 2011, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2011, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 69 GW, an increase of almost 70%, and PV power stations are commonplace in Germany, Italy, and Spain.Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.
Example: Wood, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower energy, etc.