Introduction of Non-renewable energy resources
Introduction: Sufficient, reliable sources of energy are a necessity for industrialized nations. Energy is used for heating, cooking, transportation and manufacturing. Energy can be generally classified as non-renewable and renewable. Over 85% of the energy used in the world is from non-renewable supplies. Most developed nations are dependent on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels (coal and oil) and nuclear power. These sources are called non-renewable because they cannot be renewed or regenerated quickly enough to keep pace with their use. Some sources of energy are renewable or potentially renewable. Examples of renewable energy sources are: solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and wind. Renewable energy sources are more commonly by used in developing nations.
TYPES OF NON- RENEABLE ENERGY SOURCES: There are various types of non- reneable energy sources.
A). Coal: Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed in several stages as buried remains of land plants that lived 300-400 million years ago were subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years.
ago were subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years.
Various stages of coal:
- Bituminous coal
1. The carbon content of Anthracite is 90% and its calorific value is 8700 kcal.
2. The carbon content of bituminous, lignite and peat are 80, 70 and 60% respectively
B). Petroleum: Petroleum or crude oil = hydrocarbons small amount S, O, N.
Occurrence: The fossil fuel formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plants that were buried under lake and ocean at high temperature and pressure for million years.
Fractional distillation: Hydrocarbons are separated by fractioning the crude oil.
Petroleum World Scenario:
1. 67% oilreserves.
2. 25% of the oil reserves in Saudi Arabia.
At the present rate of usage, the world’s crude oil reserves are expected to get exhausted in just 40 years.
C). LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) :
1. The petroleum gas, converted into liquid under high pressure as LPG
2. LPG is colorless and odorless gas.
3. During bottling some mercaptans is added, to detect leakage of LPG from the cylinder.
D). Natural Gas:
1. Mixture of 50-90% methane and small amount of other hydrocarbons.
2. Its calorific value ranges from 12,000-14,000 k-cal./m3.
(i) Dry gas: If the natural gas contains lower hydrocarbons like methane and ethane, it is called dry gas.
(ii)Wet Gas : If the natural gas contains higher hydrocarbons like propane, butane along with methane it is called wet gas.
Occurrence: Formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plants, those were buried under lake and ocean, at high temperature and pressure for millions of years.