Timer extraction & mining
Introduction: The chief product that forests supply is wood like timbers. Major forest products consist of timber small wood and fuel wood. Indian forests produce about 5,000 species of wood, of which about 450 are commercially valuable. Hard woods include important species such as teak, ironwood, mahogany etc.
These woods are used for constructional purposes. Population explosion had its tremendous pressure on demand for timber and other wood. Consumption of wood for industrial uses is more in developed countries than the developing countries. India has abundant timber. It accounts half of the total biomass produced by a forest. But demands may become still higher in future.
That increase in demand cannot be met from what we produce at present. Total requirement of timber in the year 2000 was 46.755 m3 (based on DCPPT, 1983). It is a matter of serious concern that the present generation man has forgotten the value of forests. The reckless felling of trees from the very beginning of the present century without caring for environment
Timber extraction is a significant cause of deforestation in Central Africa and South-eastern Asia. The biggest problem of the Indian forests is the inadequate forest cover. Forests cover only 23.13 per cent of the area against the required coverage of 33 per cent.
Others such as non-timber forest products may be extracted under a variety of arrangements, the range varying from open access to common property regimes. Services such as those of water cycle augmentation, prevention of soil erosion (through the watershed functions) and micro-climate regulation are typically available to communities as free goods.It is hypothesized that this difference in institutional regimes has implications for the mix of products and services that are extracted in different ways.
- through its effect on the extraction effort for the marketed product
- due to policies such as plantation which are intended to increase the supply of the marketed product, typically, timber.
- through a change in biodiversity of the forest stock , which in turn results in a decreased availability of the non-marketed products.
MINING: Mining is the process of removing deposits of ores from substantially very well below the ground level.
Mining is carried out to remove several minerals including coal. These mineral deposits invariably found in the forest region, and any operation of mining will naturally affect the forests.
Mining from shallow deposits is done by surface mining while that from deep deposits is done by sub-surface mining. More than 80,000 half of lands of the country are presently under the stress of mining activities.
EFFECTS OF MINING RESOURCES:
- Mining operation require removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying rock masses. This results in destruction of landscape in the area.
- Large scale of deforestation has been reported in Missouri and Dehradun valley due to mining of various areas.
- Indiscriminate mining in Goa since 1961 has destroyed more than 50,000 ha of forest land.
- Mining of radioactive mineral in Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnataka are posing similar threats of deforestation.
DAMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON FORESTS AND TRIBAL PEOPLE:
- Big dams and river valley projects have multi-purpose uses and have been referred to as "Temples of modern India”.
- India has more than 1550 large dams, the maximum being in the state of Maharashtra (more than 600) followed by Gujarat (more than 250) and Madhya Pradesh (130)
- The highest one is Tehri dam, on river Bhagirathi in Uttaranchal and the largest in terms of capacity is Bhakra dam on river Sutle.
Effects on Tribal people:
- The greatest social cost of big dam is the widespread displacement of local people.
- It is estimated that the number of people affected directly or indirectly by all big irrigation projects in India over the past 50 years can be as high as 20 million.
- The Hirakud dam, one of the largest dams executed in fifties, has displaced more than 20,000 people residing in 250 villages.
Effects on forests:
- Thousands of hectares of forests have been cleared for executing river valley projects which breaks the natural ecological balance of the region. Floods, landslides become more prevalent in such areas.
E.g.: The Narmada sagar project alone has submerged 3.5 lakh hectares of best forest comprising of rich teak and bamboo forests.