The term ‘acid rain’ means any form of precipitation like rain, fog, snow, or hail that contains harmful substances such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The major human sources do come from the industry, transportation, and a variety of power plants. Strictly speaking these industrial amounts of nitrogen, sulfur oxides and general pollutants from the air cause a drastic increase of the acidity of the precipitation and do also harm plants, humans, and buildings.Today, acid deposition is present in the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and much of Europe including portions of Sweden, Norway, and Germany. In addition, parts of South Asia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Southern India are all in danger of being impacted by acid deposition in the future.
1. Human beings:
- Destroy life – nervous, respiratory and digestive system
- Causes premature death from heart and lung disorders.
2. On Buildings:
Corrosion - Taj Mahal, houses, statues, bridges, metals.
3. On terrestrial and Lake Ecosystem
- Reduces rate of photosynthesis, growth of crops, Fish population.
- And bio mass production.
- Clean combustion technologies
- Using pollution control equipment’s
- Replacement of coal by natural gas
- Liming of lakes and soils
Causes of acid rain:
1. Burning of fossil fuels: Acid rain is formed when fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are burned. It is chiefly the result of sulfur and nitrogen in the exhaust gases. Sulfur is found in the fuels themselves (particularly coal) and forms sulfuric acid in the air. Nitrogen forms nitrogen oxides in internal combustion engines and boilers. Acid deposition is concentrated downwind of areas with large concentrations of power plants.
2. Burning of forests, volcanoes, etc.
These sources put considerable acids into the air as well.