Introduction of Social issues and environment
1. Sustainable development: Meeting the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations, to meet their own needs.
2. True sustainable development: Optimum use of natural resources with high degree of reusability, minimum wastage, least generation of toxic byproducts and maximum productivity.
3.Dimensions of sustainable development: Multi -dimensional concept – derived from interactions between society, economy and environment.
Aspects of sustainable development:
- Inter-generational equity
- Intra-generational equity.
Approaches for sustainable development:
- Developing appropriate technology - locally adaptable, eco-friendly, resource efficient and culturally suitable.
- Reduce, reuse, recycle [3R] approach – reduces waste generation and pollution
- Providing environmental education and awareness – changing attitude of the people
- Consumption of renewable resources – attain sustainability
- Conservation of non- renewable resources – conserved by recycling and reusing
- Population control.
Urban problems related to energy:
Urban centers use enormous quantities of energy. In the past, urban housing required relatively smaller amounts of energy than we use at present. Traditional housing in India required very little temperature adjustments as the materials used, such as wood and bricks handled temperature changes better than the current concrete, glass and steel of ultra-modern buildings.
Until the 1950s many urban kitchens were based on fuel wood or charcoal. This was possible and practical when homes had chimneys and kitchens were isolated from the rest of the house. Smoke became a problem once this changed to apartment blocks. Kerosene thus became a popular urban fuel. This changed to electrical energy and increasingly to natural gas by the 1970s in most parts of urban India.
Urban centers in hot climates need energy for cooling. The early systems of fans changed into air-conditioning, which consumes enormous quantities of energy. New buildings in our country have taken to using large areas covered b glass. While in cold climates this uses the greenhouse effect to trap the warmth of the sun inside, in our hot climate this adds several degrees to the temperature inside. Thus it requires even more energy to run large central air conditioning units. High rise buildings in urban centers also depend on energy to operate lifts and an enormous number of lights.
Urban transport depends on energy mainly from fossil fuels. Most urban people use their own individual transport rather than public transport systems for a variety of reasons. Urban transport in different cities and even different parts of a city are either inefficient or overcrowded. Thus even middle income groups tend to use their own private vehicles. This means more and more vehicles on the road which leads to traffic congestion, waste of time for all the commuters, and a great load of particulate matter and carbon monoxide from the exhaust of vehicles. This causes a rise in the number of people having serious respiratory diseases. Thus there is a need to develop a more efficient public transport system and discourage the use of individual vehicles in all our urban areas.