Source of waste water
Introduction: In today's modern society we have numerous uses for water both around the home as well as in commercial or industrial operations. This water becomes wastewater once it has been"used" - whether for washing dishes in a restaurant, flushing a toilet, or as part of a manufacturing process. Rainfall and runoff from streets and parking lots is also wastewater. These sources combine to produce almost one billion litres of wastewater on an average day
Industrial wastewater generation: highly variable depending on industry.
Estimating based on industrial area 7.5 to 28 m3/ha-day for non-water using industry. For water using industries (food and beverage processing, manufacturing) without internal recycling, assume that 85-95% of water use will become wastewater. Sanitary wastewater from workers estimated from 30 – 95 L/capita-day. Pretreatment onsite (including flow equalization) can reduce impact of peak flows, high organic or toxics loading to POTW. Infiltration/Inflow can have a significant impact on wastewater flow Flows into collection systems from extraneous sources:
1. Infiltration. Inflows from service connections, cracks and joints in sewer pipes, or manhole walls. Wide range: 0.2 – 28 m 3 /ha-day depending on lotsize,sewer pipe age and composition. During a storm event, infiltration and leakage can reach 500 m 3 /ha-day.
2. Steady inflow. Water from foundation, spring, or swamp drains, cooling water, generally constant and measured.
3. Direct inflow. Stormwater runoff in combined sewers, roof and yard drains, cross connections from storm drains, or through manhole covers.
4. Delayed inflow. Retarded stormwater discharge due to sump pumps, retention ponds, etc.
5. Total inflow. Sum of direct inflow at any point plus upstream flow from overflows and bypasses.
Various sources of waste are:
1 .domestic sources
2. Commercial sources
3. Industrial sources
4. Agricultural sources
5. clinical/biomedical sources
6. Mineral sources
7. Nuclear sources
Waste: Computers, printers, mobile phones, Xerox machines, calculators etc.
Effects of wastes:
- Dangerous to human life
- Degrade soil
- Cadmium in chips, Cathode ray tube, PVC causes cancer and other respiratory problems.
- Non-biodegradable plastics reduce toxic gases.
Factors affecting consumerisation and generation of wastes:
- People over – Population