Waste and reclamation
Introduction: Land is a precious resource, since it is put to diverse use by man. India with a land area 32, 88000 km- which is about 2.4% of the world supports 15% of the world's population. The precipitate land resource available now in India is less than 0.4 hectares, in comparison to more than 0.9 hector in China.
About 44% of our land is used for agriculture, 23% is covered with forests, and 4% is used pastures and grazing fields, 8% for housing, agro forestry, industrial areas, and roads arid so on. The 14% is barren and about 8% is used for miscellaneous purposes. The rapid increase of urbanisation migration of population to towns and cities has created many problems. All this has led to the utilization of agricultural land for housing construction, industries etc.
The rational use of land resource is possible by adopting and integrated land-use policy which involves prevention of land misuse and reclamation of degraded and under-utilised land, wastelands fallows, etc. Reclamation of abandoned mines and brick kilns may yield some much required land. Few agricultural lands should not be sacrificed for non-agricultural purposes, such as road building, development of industries or construction of water reservoirs.
Types of waste land:
1. Uncultivable waste land: Barren rocky areas, hilly slopes, sandy deserts.
2. Cultivable waste land:degraded forest lands, gullied lands. Marsh lands, saline land etc.
Causes for waste land formation:
- Soil Erosion, Deforestation, Water logging, Salinity.
- Excessive use of pesticides.
- Construction of dams.
- Over-exploitation of natural resources.
- Sewage and industrial wastes.
- Growing demands for fuel, fodder wood and food causes degradation and loss of soil productivity.
Objectives of waste land reclamation:
- To improve the physical structure and quality of the soil
- To prevent soil erosion
- To avoid over – exploitation of natural resources
- To conserve the biological resources.
Methods of waste land reclamation:
- Irrigation practices
- Green manures and bio fertilizers
- Application of Gypsum
- Afforestation programmes
- Social forestry programs.
Consumerisation of Waste products:
- Consumerisation – Consumption of resources.
- Traditionally favorable rights of sellers
- Right to introduce product, price, Incentives
- Traditionally buyer rights
- Right to buy, right to expect the product to perform as claimed
Important information to be known by buyers:
- About ingredients
- Manufacturing dates,
- Expiry date, etc.
Objectives of Consumerisation:
- Improves rights and power of the buyers
- Making the manufacturer liable
- Reuse and recycle the product
- Reclaiming useful parts
- Reusable packing materials
- Health and happiness.