Water supply and sanitation
Introduction: The Ninth Five Year Plan envisages provision of potable drinking water to every settlement in the country on a sustainable basis and the pursuit of all possible measures for the rapid expansion and improvement of sanitation facilities in rural and urban areas.The provision of safe drinking water supply and sanitation facilities is a basic necessity of life and a crucial input in achieving the goal of “Health for All”.
WATER DEMAND AND DOMESTIC
USES: There are different types of water demand.
1) Residential Water Demand
2) Commercial, Municipal and Industrial water Demand
1. Residential Water Demand:
Many households on public water systems are also served by surface or well water for irrigation purposes. These are commonly referred to as “dual users.” We would expect dual users to use the public system for indoor water demand and the well or surface water system for outdoor demand, since surface water from the latter is not potable and relatively inexpensive from the point of view of the customer. Households having access to surface water systems include some older subdivisions.
These households take their water directly from ditches and are likely to use flood irrigation systems to distribute water. Newer subdivisions that have access to surface irrigation water typically operate pressurized irrigation systems that use sprinklers to distribute water. There are two types of residential water demand.
Single - Family Residential: The explanatory factors or variables explaining single-family household water demand are incorporated into two models of residential water demand. One is a model of individual household demand. The second is a model of aggregate residential water demand. Coefficients estimated by these models measure the effect of the variables on water demand. Using data on publicly supplied water to households, the model of individual household demand estimates the effect of lot size, household size, house characteristics, and weather on water use.
The model of aggregate residential demand estimates the effect of price on water use. In combination, these two models are used to estimate baseline water demand. A third model, used for forecasting, uses the coefficients derived in the first two models, (along with present and forecasted values of the independent variables), to forecast future water demand. Details of these models and the data they employ are presented in Appendix A.
Multi- Family Residential: Multi-family units are a mix of rentals and owner-occupied dwellings. Some units pay directly for the water they use indoors; others pay indirectly through a rental charge. Even if households are owner -occupiers, managers rather than households typically make day-to-day decisions about outdoor water use due to the communal nature of the property.
Hence, in multi-family units, the characteristics of the residents are not likely to explain water demand very well. Instead, a single indicator of demand was selected, the most appropriate being the number of households in a housing complex. This standard approach is called a “unit use” approach. Under this approach, all United Water, Idaho multi-family accounts were grouped into individual complexes (apartments and mobile home parks) and matched with information provided by the Ada County Tax Assessor’s Office on the number of units in each complex/mobile home park
2.Commercial, Municipal and Industrial Water Demand:Water demand varies by type of establishment. For example, the water demand of a concrete manufacturing facility will be very different from that of a furniture store. In general, differences in water demand among establishments reflect the type of goods or service being produced. Another indicator of water demand by establishments is the number of people they employ, reflecting size of the operation. In many studies, the number of employees has been found to be highly correlated with water demand and may, in a unit use approach, be used to estimate a water demand coefficient for a group of establishments.
Domestic water use:
Of course some of the most important uses for water are at our homes. Domestic water use is water used for indoor and outdoor household purposes— all the things you do at home: drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, brushing your teeth, watering the yard and garden, and even washing the dog.
Water generally gets to our homes in one of two ways. Either it is delivered by a city/county water department (or maybe from a private company), or people supply their own water, normally from a well. Water delivered to homes is called "public-supplied deliveries" and water that people supply themselves is called "self supplied", and is almost always from groundwater.
The majority of America's population (about 86 percent) gets their water delivered from a public-supply system. This makes sense, as America's population now largely live in urban centers. You might want to check out a bar chart below that shows how the trend over the last 50 years of people moving to urban centers is reflected in the shrinking numbers of self-supplied people in the Nation.