Environment and human health
Introduction: As the world's population grows, improving living standards without destroying the Environment is a Global challenge.Most developing countries with rapid population growth face the urgent need to improve living standards. As we exploit the nature to meet the present needs, we are destroying the resources needed for the future.
1. Physical Hazards – Radioactive and UV radiations, Global warming, Chlorofluro carbons, Noise etc.
2. Chemical Hazards– Combustion of Fossil fuels, industrial effluence, pesticides, heavy metals.
3. Biological Hazards- Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites
Many areas are afflicted by;
- Water shortages
- Soil exhaustion
- Loss of forests
- Air and water pollution
- Degradation of coastlines etc.
As the world's population grows, improving living standards without destroying the Environment is a Global challenge. Most developing countries with rapid population growth faces the urgent need to improve living standards. As we exploit the nature to meet the present needs, we are destroying the resources needed for the future.
Environment Getting Worse: In the past decade in every environmental sector, conditions have either failed to improve, or they are worsening.
- Unclean water along with poor sanitation kills over 12 million people each year. Water pollution is a serious problem everywhere.
- Air pollution kills nearly 3 million people. Air pollution, already a serious problem in cities, is becoming worse as urban population grow and the number of motor vehicles rises.
Heavy metals and other contaminants also causes health problems
- In most developing countries, the population has been growing faster than food supplies.
- Population pressures have degraded some 2 billion hectares of cultivable land- an area the size of USA and Canada put together.
- Supply of fresh water is limiting, since the demand is soaring as population grows and per-capita use rises.
- By 2025, when world population is projected to be 8 billion, nearly 48 countries containing 3 billion people will face freshwater shortages
Coastlines and Oceans:
- Half of all coastal ecosystems are pressured by high population densities and urban development
- ]A tide of pollution is rising in the world's seas
- Ocean fisheries are being overexploited and fish catches are down
- Nearly half of the world's original forest cover has been lost.
- Each year millions of hectares of forests are cut, bulldozed or burned
- Forests provide over 400 billion US$ to the world economy annually and are vital to maintaining healthy ecosystems
- Current demand for forest products may exceed the limit of sustainable consumption by 25%
It is nothing but learning about the particular thing through knowledge. We can identify our values and ourselves with the help of knowledge and experience.
1. Formal education-Self related learning process.
2. Value education – Analyze based on instruments.
3. Value-based environment education- Based on environment.
- To improve the integral growth of human begins
- To create attitudes and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle.
- To increase awareness about our national history our cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration, community develo9pment and environment.
- To create and develop awareness about the values and their significance and role.
- To know about various living and non- living organisms and their interaction with environment.
Types of values:
- Universal values-Importance of the human conditions.
- Cultural values-Right, wrong, good and bad.
- Individual values-Individual personality and experiences.
- Global values-Human civilization.
- Spiritual values-Self-restraint, discipline.
AIDS is the abbreviated form for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immune deficiency Virus).
Origin of HIV/AIDS
1. through African Monkey
African monkey or Chimpanzees To human.
2. Through Vaccine Program me
(a)Polio, small pox vaccine from monkey’s kidney-Africa.
(b) Hepatitis-B viral vaccine-Los Angles and New York.
Factors influencing modes of Transmission of HIV:
1. Unprotected sex with infected person.
2. Using needles or syringes from HIV positive person.
3. During pregnancy, breast feeding HIV transmits from mother to infant babies.
4. Blood transfusion during accident and pregnancy.
5. Biologically the male to female transmission is 2 to 4 time more efficient than female to male transmission.
6. Women’s cervical tissue is more vulnerable to HIV than men.
Factors not influencing transmission of HIV:
1. Tears, food, air, cough, handshake and normal kissing.
2. Mosquito flies and insect bites.
3. Sharing of utensils, clothes, toilets and bathroom.
- Loss of labor
- Inability to work
- Lack of energy.
Functions of HIV in human body:
White blood cells (WBC) are responsible for the formation of antibodies called T-helper cells’-helper cells are the key infection fighters in the immune system. Once HIV cells are enter into the boy they destroy the T-cells and cause many infection diseases.
I. Minor symptoms:
- Persistent cough for more than one month.
- General skin disease.
- Viral infection.
- Fungus infection in mouth and throat.
- Frequent fever, headache and fatigue.
II. Major symptoms:
- Diarrhea for more than one month.
- TB for more than one month.
- Fall of hairs.
- 10% of body weight loss within short period.