Introduction: Is population explosion a boon or a curse? For the European developed countries like Spain and Italy, where the population is decreasing, this might be considered as a boon. However, for the developing countries like India, population explosion is a curse and is damaging to the development of the country and it’s society. The developing countries already facing a lack in their resources, and with the rapidly increasing population, the resources available per person are reduced further, leading to increased poverty, malnutrition, and other large population-related problems.
The literal meaning of population is “the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region” (Webster’s dictionary), and the literal meaning of population explosion is “a pyramiding of numbers of a biological population” (Webster’s dictionary).As the number of people in a pyramid increases, so do the roblems related to the increased population. The main factors affecting the population change are the birth rate, death rate and migration. The birth rate is the ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). The death rate is the ratio between the number of deaths and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). Migration is the number of people moving in (immigration) or out (emigration) of a country, place or locality. The population change is calculated by the formula:
Population change = (Births Immigration) – (Deaths Emigration)
The recent increase in the world population has been caused due to the following major reasons:
The increase in birth rates due to medical improvements
The decrease in death rates due to better medical facilities and advancements in the field of medicine.
Immigration to better developed countries due to several reasons like better job opportunities, war, and natural causes like hurricanes, earthquakes, and so forth.
India, being a developing country, has had to face several economic and political challenges. One of the most important problems is the population explosion. According to Geography.com.sg, “India's population hit 1 billion in May 2000, increasing the urgency for the country to moderate its population growth.” Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighboring countries of Bangladesh and Nepal.The population density of India in 1996 was about 287 persons per square kilometer (Encyclopedia Britannica, Internet). Several solutions to decrease the rate of population increase have been tried by the government, some successful, some unsuccessful. Although the rate of increase has decreased, the rate has not reached the satisfactory level yet.The population in India continues to increase at an alarming rate. The effects of this population increase are evident in the increasing poverty, unemployment, air and water pollution, and shortage of food, health resources and educational resources.
Causes: Modern medical facilities, life expectancy, illiteracy.
Effects: Poverty, Environmental degradation, over –exploitation of natural resources, threat, communal war.
Remedy: Through birth control programs.
List the effects of population explosion: Effects of over populations. Uncontrolled growth population decreases the growth of any country and also causes socio-economic disturbances. Overpopulation leads to a number of not only national but also individual’s family problems. When the numbers increase, avenues decrease and the number of drop outs, unemployed and under-nourished increase every day. Per capita income, availability of natural resources and basic necessities of life are adversely affected. Some of them are listed ahead:
1. Space: To accomodate increasing population, new cities and towns are developed at the cost of agriculture, forests etc. Deforestation in turn causes problems like soil erosion, floods etc.
2. Food Supply: Due to rapid population growth but slower food increase, the people are not able to get balanced diet and suffer from malnutrition. So people become weak, anaemic, mentally retarded and less-fit members of society.
3. Unemployment: More people but less employment facilities lead to increasing unemployment which breeds frustration and agitations in unemployed youth. At the end of March 1990, around 13 million workers were unemployed.
4. Education: Poor hygienic. Conditions, pollution, price rise are the other effects of population explosion.
Annual average growth rate.
Annual average growth rate. It is a measure of human population. It is calculated:
Annual average growth rate in per cent = (P2-P1/P2*N)*100
Where P1 = Population size in previous census
P2 = Population size in present census
N = Number of years between two census.