Role of Information technology in environment
Introduction: Information technology has tremendous potential in the field of environmentaleducation and health as in any other field like business, economics, politics or culture. Development of internet facilities, World Wide Web (WWW),geographical information system (GIS) and information through satellites hasgenerated a wealth of up to date information on various aspects of environment and Health.
ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT
1. Remote sensing:
Components - A platform, aircraft, a balloon, rocket and satellite.
- Origin of electromagnetic energy
- Transmission of energy
- Interaction of energy
- Detection of energy
- Preprocessing of data
- Data analysis and interpretation
- Integration and other applications.
In agriculture, forestry, land cover, water resources.
2. Data Base- Collection of inter related data on various subjects.
- Ministry of environment and forest
- National management information system
- Environmental information system.
Health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. “Health is influenced by many factors such as:
1. Nutritional factors
2. Biological factors
3. Chemical factors
4. Psychological factors:
These factors may cause harmful changes in the body’s conditions are calleddisease.The following aspects contribute to the disease and impact on human health:
a) Infectious organisms
Let us explain the above aspects in details:
a) Infectious organisms: Disease causing organisms pose great environmental threats to health more severely in the developing countries especially the tropical ones. High temperature and moisture along with malnutrition help many diseases to spread in these countries. Infectious organisms can also cause respiratory diseases. Such diseases includemalaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis etc. Most of these infections take place when the environmental conditions are unclean and unhygienic.
b) Chemicals: A large number of chemicals are introduced in the environment by anthropogenic activities. Industrial effluents containingvarious chemicals are of major concern. These chemical could be divided into categories i.e. hazardous and toxic chemicals. Some of the chemicals cause abnormality in growth and development while others also sometimes affect the nervous system and the reproductive system. Some chemicals/pesticides like DDT and other industrial pollutants may act as hormone analogs in humans and other species. These environmental hormones affect reproduction, development and cause various types of ailments including tumors.
c) Noise: Although human ear is capable of tolerating a range of sound levels, yet if sound levels beyond permissible level exist for certain duration, it becomes painful and sometimes irreparable damage occurs. Besides hearing damage various types of physiological and psychological changes are induced by noise pollution.
d) Radiation: Radiations are known to cause short-term and long term changes in various organs. Cosmic rays and ultra-violet rays cause harmful effects on human health which may include cancer.
e) Diet:Diet has a very important role in maintaining health. Malnutrition makes human prone to other diseases. There is strong correlation between cardiovascular diseases and the amount of salt and fat in one’s diet. Food contamination can cause various ill effects. Various adulterated pulses, condiments, oils etc. sold in the market to earn profit affect human health.
f) Settlement: Proper environment, availability of basic necessities of life like water, sanitation etc. are essential for health living. Housing is very important from security point of view. Improper settlement and poor physical environment may cause various psychological problems which affect various vital physiological processes in the body