## Approximation of Energy Equation

**INTRODUCTION: **The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simplifications that were carried. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. It turn out that these simplifications can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work, the problems can be solved. The following sections provide further explanation.

**Energy Equation in Steady State: **The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason. Hence the energy equation is reduced to

If the flow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform, equation is reduced to

It can be noticed that last term in equation for non-deformable control volume does not vanished. The reason is that while the velocity is constant, the pressure is different. For a stationary fix control volume the energy equation, under this simplification transformed to

Dividing equation the mass flow rate provides: