Introduction: These can be considered fewer than two headings. The first is frictional losses within the pipe and the second covers bends; valves; sudden enlargements etc. where turbulence is set up within fluid and this leads to losses.
Head Lost Due To Friction In The Pipe: Two equations can be used when the flow is either Laminar or Turbulent. These are:
Darcy's Equation for Round Pipes:
For Round Pipes:
This equation can be expressed in terms of the quantity flowing per second.
Using the Imperial system of measurements
Darcy's Equation for Circular Pipes
Where Wetted area/Wetted perimeter
The Chezy Equation