Sudden Changes To Pipe Size Or Shape
Introduction: The sudden changes or the introduction of bends or valves disturbs the flow pattern along the pipe. The result is an increase in turbulence and this increases the frictional losses.
Note: The pressure just inside the larger pipe is the same as that in the small pipe! Momentum at 1 = mass Velocity =
Momentum at 2 =
Drop in momentum
For this to happen there must be a force opposing motion
The magnitude of the force =