GEOINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND CARTOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION: This Masters in Geo information Technology & Cartography focuses on understanding and managing the locational data required to use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) together with visualization and map production in a GIS environment. It is the only program in the UK to have a significant emphasis on cartography; and our focus on the underpinning geometrics aspects and cartographic output is unique among GIS programs.
- This program, if fully completed with the award of an MSc, is accredited by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS).
- If you are seeking a career in geographic information management or cartography and have little or no academic background in this subject: or if you have a technical/practical background in the subject and are seeking an academic qualification; this program is designed for you.
- In addition to studying the main theoretical aspects of geographic information science and cartography, you will gain practical skills in using and developing GIS, supported by an understanding of coordinate systems, transformations and geospatial data infrastructures.
- You will benefit from significant input from industry to our teaching program, including teaching on some courses, guest lectures and seminars. There are also informal opportunities to meet people from industry at open events and visits to company offices. Projects may be carried out in conjunction with industry.
- You will benefit from access to our extensive computer laboratories and the latest software, including ArcGIS, Map Info for GIS, graphic design packages and remote sensing processing software.
- Textbooks for semester 1 courses are included in fees; and you will attend the three-day GIS Research UK conference as part of the program (included in fees).
An example of use of layers in a GIS application. In this example, the forest cover layer (light green) is at the bottom, with the topographic layer over it. Next up is the stream layer, then the boundary layer, then the road layer. The order is very important in order to properly display the final result. Note that the pond layer was located just below the stream layer, so that a stream line can be seen overlying one of the ponds.
The term "cartographic modeling" was probably coined by Dana Tomlin in his PhD dissertation and later in his book which has the term in the title. Cartographic modeling refers to a process where several thematic layers of the same area are produced, processed, and analyzed. Tomlin used raster layers, but the overlay method (see below) can be used more generally. Operations on map layers can be combined into algorithms, and eventually into simulation or optimization models.
Geometric networks are linear networks of objects that can be used to represent interconnected features, and to perform special spatial analysis on them. A geometric network is composed of edges, which are connected at junction points, similar to graphs in mathematics and computer science. Just like graphs, networks can have weight and flow assigned to its edges, which can be used to represent various interconnected features more accurately. Geometric networks are often used to model road networks and public utility networks, such as electric, gas, and water networks. Network modeling is also commonly employed in transportation planning, hydrology modeling, and infrastructure modeling.
Map overlay: The combination of several spatial datasets (points, lines, or polygons) creates a new output vector dataset, visually similar to stacking several maps of the same region. These overlays are similar to mathematical Venn diagram overlays. A union overlay combines the geographic features and attribute tables of both inputs into a single new output. An intersect overlay defines the area where both inputs overlap and retains a set of attribute fields for each. A symmetric difference overlay defines an output area that includes the total area of both inputs except for the overlapping area.
Data extraction is a GIS process similar to vector overlay, though it can be used in either vector or raster data analysis. Rather than combining the properties and features of both datasets, data extraction involves using a "clip" or "mask" to extract the features of one data set that fall within the spatial extent of another dataset.
In raster data analysis, the overlay of datasets is accomplished through a process known as "local operation on multiple raster’s" or "map algebra," through a function that combines the values of each raster's matrix. This function may weigh some inputs more than others through use of an "index model" that reflects the influence of various factors upon a geographic phenomenon.