Insulating Transformer Oil
Insulating Transformer Oil
Transformer Oil serves mainly tow purposes one it is liquid insulation in electrical power transformer and two it dissipates heat of the transformer e.i. acts as coolant. In addition to these, this oil serves other two purposes, it helps to preserve the core and winding as these are fully immersed inside oil and another important purpose of this oil is, it prevents direct contact of atmospheric oxygen with cellulose made paper insulation of windings, which is susceptible to oxidation.
Types of Transformer Oil:-
1. Paraffin based Transformer Oil
2. Naphtha based Transformer Oil
The parameters of Transformer Oil are categorized as,
1. Electrical Parameters – Dielectric Strength , Specific Resistance, Dielectric Dissipation factor.
2. Chemical Parameter - Water Content, Acidity, Sludge Content.
3. Physical Parameters - Inter Facial Tension, Viscosity, Flash Point, Pour Point.
Electrical Parameter of Transformer Oil:-
Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil,
Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil is also known as Breakdown Voltage of transformer oil or BDV of transformer oil. Break down voltage is measured by observing at what voltage, sparking straits between two electrodes immerged in the oil, separated by specific gap. Low value of BDV indicates presence of moisture content and conducting substances in the oil. For measuring BDV of transformer oil, portable BDV measuring kit is generally available at site. In this kit, oil is kept in a pot in which one pair of electrodes are fixed with a gap of 2.5 mm (in some kit it 4mm) between them. Now slowly rising voltage is applied between the electrodes. Rate of rise of voltage is generally controlled at 2KV/s and observe the voltage at which sparking starts between the electrodes. That means at which voltage Dielectric Strength of transformer oil between the electrodes has been broken down. Generally this measurement is taken 3 to 6 times in same sample of oil and the average value of these reading is taken. BDV is important and popular test of transformer oil, as it is primary indication of health of oil and it can be easily carried out at site.
Dry and clean oil gives BDV results, better than the oil with moisture content and other conducting impurities. Minimum Breakdown Voltage of transformer oil or Dielectric Strength of transformer oil at which this oil can safely be used in transformer, is considered as 30 KV.
Specific Resistance (Resistivity) of Transformer Oil
This is another important property of transformer oil. This is measure of DC resistance between two opposite sides of one cm3 block of oil. Its unit is taken as ohm-cm at specific temperature. With increase in temperature the resistivity of oil decreases rapidly. Just after charging a transformer after long shut down, the temperature of the oil will be at ambient temperature and during full load the temperature will be very high and may go upto 90oC at over load condition. So resistivity of the insulating oil must be high at room temperature and also it should have good value at high temperature as well. That is why specific resistance or resistivity of transformer oil should be measured at 27oC as well as 90oC.
Minimum standard Specific Resistance of Transformer oil at 90oC is 35X 1012 ohm – cm and at 27oC it is 1500X1012 ohm – cm.
Dielectric Dissipation Factor of tan delta of Transformer oil
Dielectric Dissipation Factor is also known as loss factor or tan delta of transformer oil. When a insulating materials is placed between live part and grounded part of an electrical equipment, leakage current will flow. As insulating material is dielectric in nature the electric current through the insulation ideally leads the voltage by 90o. Here voltage means the instantaneous voltage between live part and ground of the equipment. But in reality no insulating materials are perfect dielectric in nature. Hence electric current through the insulator will lead the voltage with an angle little bit shorter than 90o. Tangent of the angle by which it is short of 90o is called Dielectric Dissipation Factor or simply tan delta of transformer oil. More clearly, the leakage current through an insulation does have two component one is capacitive or reactive and other one is resistive or active. Again it is clear from above diagram, value of ′δ′ which is also known as loss angle, is smaller, means resistive component of the current IR is smaller which indicates high resistive property of the insulating material. High resistive insulation is good insulator. Hence it is desirable to have loss angle as small as possible. So we should try to keep the value of tanδ as small as possible. High value of this tanδ is an indication of presence of contaminants in transformer oil. Hence there is a clear relationship between tanδ and resistivity of insulating oil. If resistivity of the insulating oil is decreased, the value of tandelta increases and vice versa. So both resistivity test and tan delta test of transformer oil are not normally required for same piece of insulator or insulating oil.
In one sentence it can be said that, tanδ is measure of imperfection of dielectric nature of insulation materials like oil.