Nature Of Pole Voltage Waveforms Output By PWM Inverters
Nature of Pole Voltage Waveforms Output by PWM Inverters:
Fig: A typical pole-voltage waveform of a PWM inverter
- Unlike in square wave inverters the switches of PWM inverters are turned on and off at significantly higher frequencies than the fundamental frequency of the output voltage waveform.
- In a three-phase inverter the other two pole voltages have identical shapes but they are displaced in time by one third of an output cycle. Compared to the square pole voltage waveform, the pole voltage waveform of the PWM inverter changes polarity several times during each half cycle.
- The time instances at which the voltage polarities reverse have been referred here as notch angles. It may be noted that the instantaneous magnitude of pole voltage waveform remains fixed at half the input dc voltage (Edc).
- When upper switch (SU), connected to the positive dc bus is on, the pole voltage is 0.5 Edc and when the lower switch (SL), connected to the negative dc bus, is on the instantaneous pole voltage is - 0.5 Edc.
- The switching transition time has been neglected in accordance with the assumption of ideal switches. In voltage source inverters, meant to feed an inductive type load, the upper and lower switches of the inverter pole conduct in a complementary manner.
- When upper switch is on the lower is off and vice-versa. Both upper and lower switches should not remain on simultaneously as this will cause short circuit across the dc bus. On the other hand one of these two switches in each pole (leg) must always conduct to provide continuity of current through inductive loads.
- A sudden disruption in inductive load current will cause a large voltage spike that may damage the inverter circuit and the load.