Human Rights of Women and Children
Human Rights of Women and Children:
The advancement of women has been a focus of the work of the United Nations since its creation. The General Assembly of the United Nations on November 7, 1967 adopted a Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and in order to implement the principles set forth in the Declaration, a convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women was adopted by the General Assembly on December 18, 1979.
Discrimination Against Women:
Although the International Bill of Human Rights laid down a comprehensive set of rights to which all persons, including women are entitled, additional means for protecting the human rights of women were seen as necessary because the mere fact of their ' humanity ' has not been sufficient to guarantee women the protection of their rights. The convention under Art. 1 defines the term discrimination against women as any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective or their marital status, on a basis of equality of men & women of human rights & fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. The fields were steps that are to be taken to eliminate discrimination against women are:
The convention under Article 10 provides that women shall be provided same conditions for Careers & Vocational guidance as to that of men. They shall be provided
same access to studies for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in all types of vocational training. Women shall have access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the same quality as to that of men. Women shall be provided same opportunities as to men in matters relating to scholarship and other study grant. They shall have same opportunities for access to programme of continuing education including adult and functional literacy programmes. They shall have same opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education.
The convention under Art.11 provided that states shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against woman in the field of employment, in particular (a) the right to work (b) right to same employment opportunities (c) right to free choice of profession and employment (d) right to equal remuneration including benefits and equal treatment in respect or work, of equal value as well as equality of treatment in the education of quality of work (e) the right to social security, particularly in cases of retirement, unemployment, sickness invalidity, old age and other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid leave (f) right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions. There shall be no discrimination against women on grounds of marriage or maternity.
The convention under Art.12 provides that states shall take steps to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of health care, access to health care services, including those related to family planning.
Economic And Social Life:
Art.13 of the convention provides that women shall be provided the same rights as to that of men in particular (a) the right to family benefits (b) the right to bank loans mortgages and other forms of financial credit the right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.
Women in Rural Areas:
Article 14 provided elimination of discrimination against rural areas. States are required to ensure such women the right to:
(a) Participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels
(b) Have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counseling and services in family planning
(c) Benefit directly from social security programmes.
(d) Obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal, including, that relating to functional literacy, as well as, inter alia, the benefit of all community and extension services, in order to increase their technical proficiency.
(e) Organize self-help groups and cooperatives in order to obtain equal access to economic opportunities through employment or self-employment.
(f) Participate in all community activities.
(g) Have access to agricultural credit and loans, marketing facilities, appropriate technology and equal treatment in land and agrarian reform as well as in land resettlement schemes and
(h) Enjoy adequate living conditions.
Marriage & Family Relations:
Art.16 provides that states shall take all measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations. Women shall be provided:
(a) The same right to enter into marriage.
(b) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution
(c) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, in matters relating to their children. In all cases the interests of children shall be paramount.
(d) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise their rights.
(f) The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a family name a profession and an occupation.