PHILIP B CROSBY
Crosby argues that if management is serious about achieving ZD they have to be serious about prevention. He proposes some guidelines for managers which he calls the 'four absolutes of quality management'. Similarly to arguments raised by Deming and Juran, Crosby thinks that companies’ performance is reflected by their management’s attitudes to quality.
The essence of Crosby's quality drive is prevention. He argues that quality is free. The costs are only related to the various obstacles which prevent workers from producing right first time.
There are two major problems which are the causes of poor quality in industry according to Crosby;
- Those which are due to employee poor awareness and knowledge and
- Others which are due to carelessness and lack of attention.
The former can be easily identified, measured and solved but the latter need a long term management effort in changing culture and attitudes.
Crosby argues that if management is serious about achieving ZD they have to be serious about prevention. He proposes some guidelines for managers which he calls the 'four absolutes of quality management'.
1 Quality means conformance to the requirements: The setting of requirements is management responsibility as are the communication devices and their effectiveness. Crosby argues that if management wants people to 'do things right first time' they have to tell everyone clearly what that is;
2 Quality comes from prevention (vaccination is the way to prevent disease): The first absolute was to understand the process by which various processes are involved in producing product services. The second is about identifying and eliminating all chances for error to occur;
3 Quality performance standards is Zero Defects: This is conformance to the requirements and should be the personal performance standard of everyone in the organization according to Crosby and will come from a change in attitudes;
4 Quality measurements is the price of non-conformance: According to Crosby manufacturing companies spend 25% of sales doing things wrong and service companies spend about 40% of their operating costs on the same wasteful actions. Similarly to arguments raised by Deming and Juran, Crosby thinks that companies’ performance is reflected by their management’s attitudes to quality.
Crosby’s fourteen step quality improvement programme:
1. Management commitment: Help management recognize that it must be personally committed to participating in a quality improvement programme.
2. Quality improvement team: Bring together representatives of each department to form such a team.
3. Quality measurement Determine the status of quality throughout the company.
4. Cost of quality evaluation: Establish the cost of quality to indicate where corrective action will be profitable for a company.
5. Quality awareness: Share with employees the measurements of what non-quality is costing through training and communication material.
6. Corrective action: Bring problems to light for all to see and resolve them on a regular basis.
7. Establish an ad hoc committee for the Zero Defect programme: After a year has gone by, a Zero Defects Day will reaffirm management’s commitment, to the words ’Zero Defects’ and the thought that everyone should do things right the first time.
8. Supervisor training: A formal orientation of the Zero Defects programme with all levels of management should be conducted prior to its implementation.
9. Zero Defects Day: Zero Defects as the performance standard of the company is established in one day to provide emphasis and long lasting impression.
10. Goal setting: Regular meetings between supervisors and employees help people learn to think in terms of meeting goals and accomplishing specific tasks as a team.
11. Removal of error causes: Individuals are asked to describe any problems that keep them from performing error-free wok The appropriate functional group will develop an answer to those problems.
12. Recognition: Award programmes are established to recognize those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts. Awards should not be financial; recognition is what is important.
13. Quality councils: Quality professionals and team chairpersons should meet regularly to communicate and determine actions to upgrade and improve the quality improvement programme.
14. Do it again: Set up a new team of representatives and begin again to overcome the turnover and changing situations that can occur in the year to 18 months to implement the typical quality improvement programme situations that can occur in the year to 18 months to implement the typical quality improvement programme has started to take place.