THE PDCA LEADERSHIP MODEL—A MODEL FOR POLICY DEPLOYMENT
Management needs a model which is process oriented, i.e. a model which follows management’s yearly and follow-up cycle. For each key process suggestions for quality improvements will be generated as input to the next phase of the PDCA Leadership Model.
The PDCA leadership model:
- The cycle of the PDCA Leadership Model begins with the Check phase, because the development of the plan for quality improvements requires an understanding of the present situation.
- The TQM leadership model is to consist of two key elements based on Deming’s well known points 1 and 5: continuous improvement of products and services and continuous improvement of processes. Hence, the model will consist of the following two elements: design review and total quality audit.
- The process of design review consists of checking the product and service development at various important stages—a preliminary stage, one or more intermediate stages and a final stage.
- Total quality audit consists of checking the concordance between quality plans and quality results in order to identify future opportunities for improvements. In short, total quality audit is checking the quality of the processes of the company including the product development process.
- The next phase of the leadership model is the Act phase, which consists of two elements—motivation and suggestions.
- If top management participates wholeheartedly in the check phase an important signal has been sent out to the whole organization that quality and quality improvements are top priority.
- The effect will be people who are motivated for quality improvements. For each key process suggestions for quality improvements will be generated as input to the next phase of the PDCA Leadership Model.
- The Plan phase consists of two main elements—deciding on the quality goals and policies and design of the quality plans.
- When deciding on the goals and policies management should have the four sides of the TQM pyramid as a reference. The goals and policies act as a picture (a vision) showing where the company wants to be (the goal of the journey).
- Planning is the process of designing the detailed plans for quality improvements, i.e. the road map to follow on the quality journey.
- The last phase of the PDCA Leadership Model is the Do phase. Here we also have two elements. The final quality plan has to be communicated to everyone concerned and the necessary education has to be achieved.
- Besides the need to educate the employees (including management) in the use of quality tools there is also a need to educate and train all the employees in human motivation—theory and practice.