This report on Instrumentation and Metrology for Nanotechnology is one of a series of reports resulting from topical workshops convened during 2003 and 2004 by the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council’s Committee on Technology through the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO). The workshops were part of the NSET Subcommittee’s long-range planning effort for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), the multiagency Federal nanotechnology program. The NNI is driven by long-term goalsbased on broad community input, in part received through these workshops. The NNI seeks to accelerate the research, development, and deployment of nanotechnology to address national needs, enhance our nation’s economy, and improve the quality of life in the United States and around the world,through coordination ofactivities and programs across the Federal Government.