Protein engineering complete lecture notes ebook free download pdf
Only about 30 of the more than 90 naturally occurring chemical elements are essential to organisms. Most of the elements in living matter have relatively low atomic numbers; only five have atomic numbers above that of selenium, 34. The four most abundant elements in living organisms, in terms of percentage of total number of atoms, are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, which together make up more than 99% of the mass of most cells. They are the lightest elements capable of forming one, two, three, and four bonds, respectively; in general, the lightest elements form the strongest bonds.