Within the cattle industry there has been a shift away from hiring professional technicians to artificially breed cattle and toward artificial insemination by owner-inseminators. Such a trend should not suggest that artificial insemination (AI) is an easy technique or that all owner-inseminators are proficient in AI. The pregnancy rates achieved by owner-inseminators differ by as much as 23 percent. Obviously, not all inseminators have acquired the skill to obtain consistently high conception rates in their cattle.