ABSTRACT ENREGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR BE DESTROYED BUT IT CAN BE TRANSFORMED. THIS LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY FORMS THE BASIS OF SUSTENANCE OF LIFE IN THIS EVER ELECTRIFYING WORLD. THE SOURCES AREON THE VERGE OF GETTING SCARCE. HERE ARISES AN IMMEDIATE NEED TO SEARCH FOR A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE.
IN THIS PAPER THE MOST PROVED WIND POWER HAS BEEN SELECTDED AS THE TOPIC OF INTEREST. AN INTENTION TO PROVE AN ALTERNATE METHOD FOR WIND POWER MONITORING WITH EFFICIENT COST REDUCTION TECHNIQUES HAS BEEN ATTEMPTED TO BE ACHIEVED. A MODIFIED COST EFFECTIVE DATA ACQUISITION AND INTEGRATION SYSTEM ALONG WITH DIRECT DIGITAL STORAGE REPLACES THE CONVENTIONAL RADIO TAPE STORAGE TECHNIQUES IN USE. WIND POWER GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION ALONG WITH THE SUPPORT FROM ELECTRIC GRID/BOARD IS EXPECTED TO PROVIDE A GREATER EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITY TO A CONSIDERABLE MASS. “EFFICIENT USAGE OF KNOWN SOURCE ACCOUNTS FOR THE INVENTION OF 100 NEW SOURCES”. THIS ADAGE WILL BE EXPERIENCED THROUGHOUT THIS PAPER.
The wind is a clean and plentiful source of energy. Wind turbines used to generate electricity come in a wide variety of sizes. Large wind turbines, which are usually installed in clusters called wind farms, can generate large amounts of electricity. Large wind turbines may even produce hundreds of megawatts (MW) of electricity enough to power hundreds of homes. Small wind turbines, which are generally defined as producing no more than 100 kW of electricity, are designed to be installed at homes, farms and small businesses either as a source of backup electricity, or to offset use of utility power and reduce electricity bills. Very small wind turbines (20-500 watt units) are used to charge batteries for sailboats and other recreational uses. In this paper a cost effective method is discussed for monitoring wind power.
Whether constructing a wind turbine is economically viable at your home or farm depends most strongly on the quality of your wind resource. Generally, average annual wind speeds of at least 4.0-4.5 m/s (14.4- 16.2 km/h; 9.0-10.2 mph) are needed for a small wind turbine to produce enough electricity to be cost-effective. A very useful resource for evaluating a site for its wind energy potential is a wind resource potential map. It may be useful to check wind speed measurements that have been recorded at a local weather station. It is important to consider that siting factors at these weather stations, such as nearby trees and buildings, might influence any wind speed measurements. Also, keep in mind that the equipment at these stations is often located close to the ground, and that weather stations located at airports are usually sheltered from the wind. This means that wind speed measurements recorded at these stations might under represent the wind potential at your site. For the most precise evaluation of the wind speed at your site, you need to purchase a wind resource evaluation system. While wind resource evaluation systems can be expensive, if your property is hilly and has unusual terrain features then it might be worth obtaining one.
CONVENTIONAL WIND POWER MEASUREMENT:
The most important component of a wind resource evaluation system is an anemometer. Anemometers are typically designed with cups mounted on short arms that are connected to a rotating vertical shaft. The anemometer rotates in the wind and generates a signal that is proportional to the wind speed. If you do purchase an anemometer, you will also need to purchase something to record the readings made by the anemometer, and a tower or tripod to mount the whole system on. For as little as $500 you might be able to purchase a wind totalizer, which is a very simple type of wind resource evaluation system where the anemometer is linked to an odometer. The odometer is similar to those found in cars. After a period of time, the number recorded on the odometer, which represents the total "distance" the anemometer has turned, can be divided by the time passed since the odometer was last checked in order to determine the average wind speed over a period of time at a location. More expensive wind resource evaluation systems are available. On many systems, a data logger continuously records wind speeds measured by the anemometer, and the data can be downloaded to a computer. These types of wind measurement systems provide a more accurate assessment of the wind resource at a location, but are much more expensive. For example, a system of this type, where the anemometer and data logger would be mounted on a 10 ft tripod, cost $5,000 in 2002. Do not expect your wind turbine to generate the same amount of power all the time. The wind speed at a single location may vary considerably, and this can have a significant impact on the power production from a wind turbine. Even if the wind speed varies by only 10%, the power production from a wind turbine can vary by up to 25%!
Values shown are monthly averages of measurements made by anemometers.
An important factor in how much power your wind turbine will produce is the height of its tower. The power available in the wind is proportional to the cube of its speed. This means that if wind speed doubles, the power available to the wind generator increases by a factor of 8 (2 x 2 x 2 = 8). Since wind speed increases with height increases to the tower height can mean enormous increases in the amount of electricity generated by a wind turbine. [IMG]file:///C:/Users/HEARTT%7E1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.jpg[/IMG] Relationship between wind speed and wind power.
COST EFFECTIVE DESIGN:
EMBEDDED CONTROL UNIT(PROCESSOR UNIT)
The processor system is calibrated to the considerable range of values. The analog output from anemometer is processed with signal conditioning circuit including amplifiers and filters. The sampling time is chosen as two minutes for this project. The data available in the interface card is read in every two minutes. It is then transformed to another array of memory. At the end of each day the data thus acquired is processed to find the mean. The average power thus obtained is stored in a separate array of memory provided for 365 days. Thus it can be directly interfaced with a personal computer. Now database management and comparison of various data is no more a tedious job with the availability of very high speed processors. Unlike the conventional method in which a large deposit is to be incurred for memory and periodic monitoring of the original monitoring system, which requires a highly skilled technician. This forms an effective way of direct digitized monitoring, with its cost reduced as low as Rs 800-900. An average farmer with vast amount of so called wasteland enriched with wind power can be used effectively thus adding value to the GDP of the nation as a whole. Already it is a $38 billion industry with a capacity of 5340 MW, trapped so far. However the inherent capacity available in the wind power calls for further investigation and research works. This device may be of great use to individual users as we believed it to be.
GRID CONNECTED WIND POWER:
You need a disconnect switch that can electrically isolate the wind turbine from the rest of the wind energy system. An automatic disconnect switch is necessary to prevent damage to the rest of the system in case of an electrical malfunction or a lightning strike. It also allows maintenance and system modifications to be safely made to the turbine. There are other system components you may choose or need to purchase. You may need batteries to store excess energy generated by the wind turbine. Because energy is stored in batteries as DC power, you may need an inverter to convert power from the batteries to the AC power required to run electrical appliances in your home. [IMG]file:///C:/Users/HEARTT%7E1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image012.jpg[/IMG] Diagram of a grid-tied wind electric system.
If your home or farm is connected to the power grid ,on windier days you may be able to "sell" excess power generated by your wind turbine to your utility. Then, at other times when your turbine cannot generate all the power you need, you would buy power from the grid. This concept is called "net metering", or "net billing". Even if net metering is unavailable, you might be able to reduce your power bills by using the electricity you generate using a grid-connected wind turbine. If you do this, then you would not have to buy as much electricity from your utility. If you do connect your wind turbine to the grid, your utility will require a transfer switch between the wind turbine and the utility line as a well as a two-way meter to keep track of the energy you have stored in and taken from the power grid. It is very important that your wind generator meets certain standards and that it does not pose a risk to your utility's personnel or equipment. It is also important that the quality of power coming from your turbine adequately matches the electrical characteristics in your utility's power grid. The performance is normally described by manufacturers using a performance curve of power output versus wind speed, called a power curve .
TURBINE RATINGS: One problem with wind turbine ratings is that there is no industry standard for a consistent wind speed at which to measure the output from wind turbines. Instead, manufacturers choose which wind speed to use for their wind turbine output ratings. Take, for example, the "Wind-o-matic" and the "Mighty-wind", both rated at 1,000 watts. The Wind-o-matic was rated at 5 m/s winds, while the Mighty-wind was rated at 10 m/s. Because the power in the wind is proportional to the cube of its speed , a 1,000-watt turbine rated at 10 m/s will only produce 1/8 of that power at 5 m/s. So, at a wind speed of 5 m/s, the Wind-o-matic will produce 1,000 watts, while the Mighty-wind will only produce 125 watts! Rather than comparing the rated outputs advertised for different turbines, compare the swept area of the turbines. Since the electrical output of a wind generator is largely a function of its swept area, the larger the swept area of a rotor, the more electricity the wind generator produces. Doubling the area on the solar panels that is exposed to the sun can double the electrical energy generated by solar panels. With wind turbines, swept area works much the same way. If you do not know the swept areas, you can still make reasonable comparisons between wind turbines by comparing the rotor diameters of the turbines. A modest increase in the rotor diameter will lead to significant increases in both the swept area of a turbine and the amount of electricity that the turbine can generate. The actual power production from a wind turbine will be influenced by many other factors, such as: the efficiency that the wind turbine is able to extract energy from the wind; the elevation at which the turbine is located; and other design characteristics of the wind turbine.
Theoretical power production for small wind turbines when the wind speed is 10m/s. CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE WIND TURBINE SIZE To determine the appropriate size of wind turbine to use, review your monthly electricity consumption in kilowatt-hours (kWh). To do this look at your electricity bills for the last year, add the kilowatt-hours you consumed, and divide by 12. Then compare this total to estimates of the power production for different wind turbines, a figure available from a wind turbine dealer. To get a preliminary estimate of the performance of a particular wind turbine, use the formula below: AEO = 1.64 D2 V3 Where: AEO = Annual energy output, kWh/year
D=rotor diameter, meters
V = Annual average wind speed, m/s
By making your home or farm more energy efficient and reducing the size of your peak demand electrical loads, you can reduce the size of wind turbine you'll need, thereby decreasing the purchase cost.
SAFETY CONCERNS : All wind turbines have a maximum wind speed, called the survival speed, at which they will not operate above. When winds over this maximum occur, they have an internal brake and lock to prevent them from going faster than this survival speed. For turbines operating in cold winter conditions, be prepared to de-ice as required, and store batteries in an insulated place. Mounting turbines on rooftops is generally not recommended unless a wind turbine is very small (1 kW of rated output or less). Wind turbines tend to vibrate and transmit the vibration to the structure on which they are mounted. As a result, turbines mounted on a rooftop could lead to both noise and structural problems with the building and rooftop.
CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE : The subcontractor provided routine calibration and maintenance services, as well as emergency maintenance services, at each site that received DOE equipment. For example, when a utility representative reported a sensor or logger failure, the subcontractor proceeded to the site within 72 hours to correct the problem (in some instances, the problem could be identified and corrective procedures implemented by discussing the situation with the utility representative over the telephone). The subcontractor also performed calibrations at each of the sites. Annually, calibrations included changing all sensors with precalibrated spares. Quarterly onsite calibrations of all electronics were performed. The precalibrated wind speed sensors were calibrated in a wind tunnel. All calibrations were traceable to standards established by the National Bureau of Standards.
DATA REPORTING : When the edited monthly nine-track data tape was received at PNL, it was put into a data analysis program, which provided summaries of pertinent wind characteristics at each candidate site. These summaries were incorporated into monthly candidate wind turbine site data reports, which were forwarded to NASA/Lewis, DOE, and each participating utility, thereby allowing an assessment of the wind energy potential at the sites. These reports contained information on sensor performance monthly means of wind speed and wind direction maximum recorded two minute wind speed value at each level mean hourly wind speed and direction versus time of day a frequency distribution of wind speed cumulative frequency distribution of wind speed wind speed persistence frequency average power law exponent by wind direction turbulence intensity versus wind direction wind rose plot. A wind resource map calculation is normally divided into the following stages:
1. Planning phase
2. Data collection 3. Data evaluation and site inspection
4. Calculation of the resource map
5. Presentation of the resource mapThe highlighted sections were discussed in detail above.
CONCLUSION: One of the main objectives of Kyoto protocol (1997) is , Clean Development Mechanism. In this era of electrification/industrialization the ethics of engineering which insists upon development with purity of environment and conscious social inter relationship is very hard to achieve. But with the advent trapping natural energy like wind energy without any emission will turn this ash/smoke filled atmosphere into ever green Eden. Every invention & discovery is to assist the development and to add value to the human beings. The social responsibilities in eradicating unemployment are done responsibly here. With the emergence of wind power generation and distribution as a new industry, it will provide employment opportunities to masses either directly or indirectly. “The greens of earth will glow long as the source of As wind will flow “.
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