Abstract: Concrete, typically composed of gravel, sand, water, and Portland cement, is an extremely versatile building material that is used extensively worldwide. Reinforced
concrete is very strong and can be cast in nearly any desired shape. Unfortunately,
significant environmental problems result from the manufacture of Portland cement.
Worldwide, the manufacture of Portland cement accounts for 6-7% of the total carbon
dioxide (CO2) produced by humans, adding the greenhouse gas equivalent of 330 million
cars driving 12,500 miles per year.
Fortunately, a waste product can be substituted for large portions of Portland cement, significantly improving concrete’s environmental characteristics. Fly ash, consisting mostly of silica, alumina, and iron, forms a compound similar to Portland cement. High volume of fly ash are used in concrete creates a stronger, more durable product and reduces concrete’s environmental impact considerably. Due to its strength and lower water content, cracking is reduced.
When the study deals with the durability of concrete like Acid attack, Alkaline attack and Sulphate attack which results in volume change, cracking of concrete and the deterioration of concrete has to be considered. The study reveals that high volume fly
ash concrete show that higher resistance against acid attack, alkaline attack, and sulphate attack compared with conventional concrete.
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