~ 1 ~ CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1.1
WHAT IS RED TACTON? Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, when networks are seamlessly interconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips. Red- Warmth, T-Touch, Acton-Action stands for Red Tacton. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, Red Tacton uses weak electric fields on the surface of the body as a transmission medium. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) is pursuing research and development of an innovative Human Area Networking technology called Red Tacton that safely turns the surface of the human body into a data transmission path at speeds up to 10 Mbps between any two points on the body. Using a novel electro-optic sensor, NTT has already developed a small PCMCIA card-sized prototype Red Tacton transceiver. Red Tacton enables the first practical Human Area Network between body-centered electronic devices and PCs or other network devices embedded in the environment via a new generation of user interface based on totally natural human actions such as touching, holding, sitting, walking, or stepping on a particular spot. Red Tacton can be used for intuitive operation of computer-based systems in daily life, temporary one-to-one private networks based on personal handshaking, device personalization, security, and a host of other applications based on new behavior patterns enabled by Red Tacton. NTT is committed to moving Red Tacton out of the laboratory and into commercial production as quickly as possible by organizing joint field trials with partners outside the company.
~ 2 ~ 1.2 CONCEPTS ON RED TACTON
Red Tacton is a break-through technology that, for the first time, enables reliable high-speed HAN. In the past, Bluetooth, infrared communications (IrDA), radio frequency ID systems (RFID), and other technologies have been proposed to solve the "last meter" connectivity problem. However, they each have various fundamental technical limitations that constrain their usage, such as the precipitous fall-off in transmission speed in multi-user environments producing network congestion. 1. Red Tacton uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared. 2. A transmission path is formed at the moment when a part of the human body comes in contact with a Red Tacton transceiver. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends the communication. 3. Using Red Tacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user's natural, physical movements. 4. Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face and legs. Red Tacton works through shoes and clothing as well.
~ 4 ~ CHAPTER-II RED TACTON 2.1
BASIC PRINCIPLE The basic principles of RED TACTON are 1. The Red Tacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body. 2. The Red Tacton receiver senses changes in the weak electric field on the surface of the body caused by the transmitter. 3. Red Tacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field. 4. Red Tacton detects changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the result to an electrical signal in an optical receiver circuit. Fig.2.1. Figure shows the working of the RED TACTON device over the surface of our body. The transmitting RED TACTON device changes the electric field on the surface of our body. This is sensed by the electric field sensor and the variations are given to the receiving RED TACTON device.
~ 5 ~ 2.2 MECHANISM OF RED TACTON
Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field. The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam. Fig.2.2.Figure shows the various electric fields on the surface of our body induced by the RED TACTON device. Only a portion of the induced electric field is sensed by the receiving RED TACTON device. The remaining electric fields are dissipated to the ground.
~ 7 ~ 2.3 RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER
Figure below shows the block diagram of a RED TACTON transceiver. The signal from the interface is sent to the data sense circuit and the transmitter circuit. The data sense circuit senses the signal and if the data is present it sends control signal to the transmitter which activates the transmitter circuit. The transmitter circuit varies the electric field on the surface of our body. This change in the electric field is detected by the electro-optic sensor. The output of the electro-optic sensor is given to the detector circuit, which in turn given to the interface of the receiving RED TACTON device.
~ 8 ~ 2.4 FUNCTIONAL FEATURES
1. A communications path can be created with a simple touch, automatically initiating the flow of data between a body-centric electronic device and a computer that is embedded in the environment. For example, two people equipped with Red Tacton devices could exchange data just by shaking hands. A wide range of natural human actions grasping, sitting down, walking, or standing in a particular place can be used to trigger Red Tacton to start a networked process. 2. Using a Red Tacton electro-optic sensor, two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of up to 10 Mbps. Communication is not just confined to the surface of the body, but can travel through the user's clothing to a Red Tacton device in a pocket or through shoes to communicate with a Red Tacton device embedded in the floor. Unlike wireless technologies, the transmission speed does not deteriorate even in the presence of large crowds of people all communicating at the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums or stores. Because the body surface is the transmission path, increasing the number of connected users directly increases the available number of individual channels. 3. Red Tacton can utilize a wide range of materials as a transmission medium, as long as the material is conductive and dielectric, which includes water and other liquids, various metals, certain plastics, glass, etc. Using ordinary structures such as tables and walls that are familiar and readily available, one could easily construct a seamless communication environment at very low cost using Red Tacton. (Note that constraints are imposed by the length and environment of the propagating conductor, and by the thickness of the dielectric.)
~ 9 ~ CHAPTER-III PROPERTIES
3.1 FEATURES RedTacton has three main functional features. 3.1.1 Touch Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping or connecting and disconnecting the equipment, or obtaining data. Fig.3.1.Figure illustrating that RED TACTON device can be triggered by touching and gripping. 3.1.2 Broadband & Interactive Bandwidth does not deteriorate even with duplex operations and simultaneous access by many users! Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time. 3.1.3 Any Media In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination.
~ 10 ~ 3.2 APPLICATIONS 3.2.1
One to one services With the ability to send attribute data from personal information devices worn on the body to computers embedded in the environment, one-to-one services could be implemented that are tailored to the individual needs of the user. 3.2.2 Intuitive operation of personal information Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior, so there is no need to insert smart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated with today's electronic devices. Fig.3.3. A simple handshake can transfer data. 3.2.3 Device personalization Setup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all be uploaded to a device the instant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured in advance. 3.2.4 New behavior patterns Tables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and other architectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. For example, a user could have instant access to the Internet merely by placing a laptop onto a conductive tabletop.
~ 11 ~ 3.2.5 Marketing applications
When a consumer stands in front of an advertising panel, advertising and information matching his or her attributes is automatically displayed. By touching or standing in front of items they are interested in, consumers can get more in-depth information. TACTON device 3.2.6 Security applications Red Tacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch. At the same time, all the transaction details and relevant user attributes (personal identity, security clearance, etc.) could be logged by the security system. 3.3 COMPARISON WITH OTHER NETWORKS The chart below shows the positioning of Red Tacton with respect to existing communication technologies. The focus on ubiquitous service has brought about the shortening of distances in communication. Red Tacton is positioned as the last 1m solution to ultimate close-range communication. Wireless communication creates connections when signals arrive, allowing for easy connections because connectors are unnecessary. However, seen from another aspect, the arriving signals can be intercepted, so security becomes an issue. Wired communication transmits data between two connection points, so interception is difficult and security can be considered to be high. However, connectors and cables are a nuisance. Taking the above points in account, Red Tacton is situated directly between wireless and wired communication. In other words, Red Tacton allows for easy connection without ~ 12 ~ connectors, while at the same time allowing transmission of data only between two contact points. It thus has the feature of being difficult to intercept.
~ 13 ~ 3.4 COMPARISON WITH OTHER COMMUNICATION METHODS
"Intra-body communication" using the human body as a transmission medium have been reported, but the electric field/photonics method employed by RedTacton is superior to conventional methods in terms of communication distance, speed, and interactivity. P: Possible N: Not possible P*: Possible under certain conditions
~ 14 ~ 3.5 ADVANTAGE OVER BLUETOOTH The system envisioned by NTT, utilizes a conversion method which takes digital data into a stream of low-power digital pulses. These can be easily transmitted and read back through the human electric field. While it is true that similar personal area networks are already accessible by using radio-based technologies like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, this new wireless technology claims to be able to send data over the human skin surface at transfer speeds of up to 10Mbps, or better than a broadband T1 connection. Receiving data in such a system is more complicated because the strength of the pulses sent through the electric field is so low. Red Tacton solves this issue by utilizing a technique called electric field photonics: A laser is passed though an electro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it. These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data. According to Tom Zimmerman, inventor of the IBM personal networking system, body-based networking is more secure than broadcast systems, such as Bluetooth, which have a range of about 10m.The issue is that with Bluetooth, it is difficult to rein in the signal and restrict it to the device you are trying to connect to. But in a busy place there could be hundreds of Bluetooth devices within range. Moreover, body-based networking seems to allow for more natural interchanges of information between humans, as only when you are in true proximity you can make this system work. There are some specific applications that would appear as being ideal matches for Red Tacton-like technologies.
CHAPTER-IV CONCLUSION The need for artificial body implants to communicate with each other as well as to report back to a portable device could have quite some value. In fact, according to other researchers, the most important application for body-based networking may well be for these type of communications within, rather than on the surface of, or outside, the body. Red Tacton technology is expected to dominate Bluetooth technology in the future. Red Tacton technology could put the use of cables to an end. The problem faced by the Red Tacton technology is the cost of development. This technology brings a new dimension of communication which effectively links the user to anyone he wants to communicate. Since it provides high speed communication, it can provide seamless service wherever, whenever and whoever uses it. ~ 18 ~ REFERENCES:  www.redtacton.com  http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/1...y_networkingat 10.htm  forum.itacumens.com/index.php?topic=12720.0  en.wikipedia.org  http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/print/2596