Nanotechnology is already making a major impact on the development of new materials. Many market forecasts show a dramatic increase in commercial pro-ducts based on materials whose properties are derived from the nano scale. Two major areas of growth have been identified - medical technologies and functional materials, plus also some structuralmaterials like nanoparticle reinforced polymers. However, looking at the industrial and commercial reality, there still is a big gap between the advantages of nanomaterial’s, and their commercial application. In the case of medical applications, there may be a long, and in many cases an unpredictable time to market; in the case of functional and structural materials, the payback mechanisms and times can be very complex and require specific industrial structures.