The name "quark" was taken by Murray Gell-Mann from the book "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce. The line "Three quarks for Muster Mark..." appears in the fanciful book. Gell-Mann received the 1969 Nobel Prize for his work in classifying elementary particles.
Quarks and Leptons are the building blocks which build up matter, i.e., they are seen as the "elementary particles". In the present standard model, there are six "flavors" of quarks. They can successfully account for all known mesons and baryons (over 200). The most familiar baryons are the proton and neutron, which are each constructed from up and down quarks. Quarks are observed to occur only in combinations of two quarks (mesons), three quarks (baryons), and the recently discovered particles with five quarks (pentaquark).
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*The masses should not be taken too seriously, because the confinement of quarks implies that we cannot isolate them to measure their masses in a direct way. The masses must be implied indirectly from scattering experiments. The masses quoted for the U and D are about 1/3 the mass of a proton, since we know the proton has three quarks. But in other combinations they contribute different masses. In the pion, an up and an anti-down quark yield a particle of only 139.6 MeV of mass energy, while in the rho vector meson the same combination of quarks has a mass of 770 MeV! The masses of C and S are from Serway, and the T and B masses are from descriptions of the experiments in which they were discovered.