conventional thermochemical technologies in environmental engineering pdf download
Around 83% of the solid biomass consumed in Europe is dedicated to heat production and only 17% to power generation. However, the latter is expanding rapidly, primarily in Northern Europe, North America and Brazil owing to favorable policies and abundant resources (IEA Bioenergy, 2002; Van Loo and Koppejan, 2008; Eurobserver, 2010). Due to the low energy density and high transportation costs of biomass fuel, dedicated biomass power plants are usually smaller (5-25 MWe) than those using conventional fossil fuels, resulting in lower energy conversion efficiencies (typically between 20-25% depending on plant size and technology) and higher investment costs (2000-4000€/kW). combustion plants also require expensive maintenance programs due to corrosion, fouling and slagging caused by inorganic elements present in the biomass fuel (Cl, K, Na, Ca, Mg) (Jenkins et al., 1998; Demirbas, 2005). Economic risks are also higher than in conventional power plants owing to seasonal and yearly variability in the production and quality of the biomass feed stock’s, their scattered geographical distribution and high transportation costs (Caputo et al., 2005).