The problems that are associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources for energy and materials. Biomass is a natural treasure for chemicals that up to now are made from fossil resources. Unfortunately, the heterogeneity and complexity of biomass still preclude exploitation of its full potential. New technologies for economical valorization of biomass are under development, but cannot yet compete with petrochemical processes. However, rising prices of fossil resources, inevitably will lead to replacement of oil refineries with bio refineries. A bio refinery uses various types of biomass feedstock’s that are processed via different technologies into heat, power and various products. The bio refinery is self-sustainable with respect to heat and power and puts no burden on the environment. Thermochemical processes such as fast pyrolysis can play an important role in bio refineries. Within the scope of biomass pyrolysis as a renewable option to produce chemicals this chapter presents a review of some pyrolysis-based technologies that are potential candidates and that form the starting point for the work that is described in this thesis.