In many current applications, availability is a key requirement, which implies that failures have to be minimal. There is a requirement to exchange modules in electronic systems while the supply voltage remains on. To achieve this, one can use redundancy or provide a means to replace only the faulty module on power without shutting down the entire system. The process wherein modules are swapped on power is called live insertion.



High-speed data systems continue to drive faster data rates and are expected to support an extremely wide variety of system features, while the levels of reliability they are expected to meet also continue to increase. One of the most common strategies for keeping a system running continuously is live insertion. Live insertion continues to be more prevalent within state-of-the-art systems; however, establishing a high reliability rating for such a system is not easy. Live-insertion systems require additional care during design to ensure that signal-integrity levels remain acceptable throughout an operating system.