Gans developed a spectrum analysis for Clarke's model.

  • Let p (α) dα denote the fraction of the total incoming power within dα of the angle α, and let A denote the average received power with respect to an isotropic antenna.
  • As N →∞, p (α) dα approaches a continuous, rather than a discrete, distribution. If G (α) is the azimuthal gain pattern of the mobile antenna as a function of the angle of arrival, the total received power can be expressed as
  • ― (1)