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The PageLSN is essential for ensuring idempotence in the presence of physiological redo operations, since reapplying a physiological redo that has already been applied to a page could cause incorrect changes to a page. Pages should not be flushed to disk while an update is in progress, since physiological operations cannot be redone on the partially updated state of the page on disk. Therefore, ARIES uses latches on buffer pages to prevent them from being written to disk while they are being updated. It releases the buffer page latch only after the update is completed, and the log record for the update has been written to the log.