The circumstances of the very first usage of the term geographic information method are lost in the sands of the time (Marble, 1989; Tomlinson, 1989), although a number of excellent histories of the field now exist (Coppock and Rhind, 1991; Foresman, 1998). But it is clear that much of the initial impetus came from the number of graduate students in quantitative geography at the University of Washington in the late 1950s; and that one of these was Duane Marble, who later moved to Northwestern University and developed a rudimentary form of GIS in support of transportation studies in the Chicago area.