General flow simulation and deformation analysis:
1. The bulk flow of work-material may be simulated using FE to analyze the property of deformed material, e.g., stress-strain condition in the work-material, and to determine forming force requirement and pressure contour on the tool-surface.

2. The simulation has been applied to the analysis of various bulk-metal forming processes: upsetting, extrusion, open and closed-die forging, and shape rolling.