UNIT 1: Some Basic concepts in Chemistry
Matter and its nature, Daltonís atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT 2: States of Matter
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyleís law, Charleís law, Grahamís law of diffusion, Avogadroís law, Daltonís law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Braggís Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
UNIT 3: Atomic Structure
Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohrís model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglieís relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, * and *2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of * and * 2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals Ė aufbau principle, Pauliís exclusion principle and Hundís rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajanís rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hessís law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics- Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, DGo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoultís Law - Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, vanít Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henryís law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelierís principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br?nsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrauschís law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbsí energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions - Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
UNIT 10: SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
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