Hydrogen full cell technology PPT & PDF Seminar Report
In the future, predominantly solar or wind power systems will likely require energy storage for days to approximately a week, with or without connections to the electric grid. If so, conversion of electricity to chemical energy is potentially attractive, since chemicals are inexpensive to store and turnaround efficiency is less critical for storage periods of a week or more. The most attractive chemical for this process is likely to be hydrogen (H2) generated locally by electrolysis of water using intermittent excess solar or wind power. Later, when combined with air or oxygen (O2) in engines or fuel cells, H2 can regenerate electricity on demand.
A predominantly renewable electricity supply could be combined synergistically with a future carbon-free electrolytic H2 transportation sector. Co-production of electricity and H2 fuel would enable massive deployment of intermittent electric generation by making efficient use of otherwise almost unavoidable excess generation during some time periods. The reliability of solar and wind power could also be improved through intentional “overseeing” of generation capacity relative to demand, since the additional excess electricity could produce H2 fuel. The energy stored in the H2 infrastructure and/or onboard H2 vehicles would be large enough to buffer H2 demand on the time scale of days. When wind or sunshine was low, higher H2 prices would temporarily reduce H2 demand from vehicles. Later, when solar and wind electricity supplies returned to higher levels, accumulated demand for H2 fuel could be easily met and H2 prices could drop.
Furthermore, if travel patterns and/or vehicle use were flexible over short periods (i.e. days), then the transportation sector could also vary transportation use in response to H2 supply and cost levels. Further integration of the electricity and H2 transportation sectors could, in principle, include the very large latent energy storage capacity of H2 vehicles as back-up power sources or even routine energy storage. A future H2 hybrid-electric or fuel cell automobile with 5-10 kg of H2 onboard (energy equivalent to 5-10 gallons of gasoline) could provide 75-150 kWh of electricity, enough to power a typical home for up to a week. The amount and efficiency of back-up power available from a H2 automobile would actually grow with consumer demands for greater size, power, and driving range. This would turn what is otherwise an engineering challenge (designing a cost-competitive H2 vehicle with range and performance comparable to or better than conventional gasoline vehicles), into a value-added benefit.
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