Computer Science Computer Organization Ebook
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In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is the practical art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals and the formal modelling of those systems.
The noun computer architecture or digital computer organization is a blueprint, a description of the requirements and basic design for the various parts of a computer. It is usually most concerned with how the central processing unit (CPU) acts and how it accesses computer memory. Some currently (2011) fashionable computer architectures include cluster computing and Non-Uniform Memory Access.
The art of computer architecture has three main subcategories:
Instruction set architecture, or ISA. The ISA is the code that a central processor reads and acts upon. It is the machine language (or assembly language), including the instruction set, word size, memory address modes, processor registers, and address and data formats.
Micro architecture, also known as Computer organization describes the data paths, data processing elements and data storage elements, and describes how they should implement the ISA. The size of a computer's cache for instance, is an organizational issue that generally has nothing to do with the ISA.
System Design includes all of the other hardware components within a computing system.
1. Data paths such as computer buses and switches
2. Memory controllers and hierarchies
3. Data processing other than the CPU, such as direct memory access (DMA)
4. Miscellaneous issues such as visualization or multiprocessing.
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