Machine Gun Paper Presentation ,Seminar & Report

Introduction


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To understand how machine guns work, it helps to know something about firearms in general. Almost any gun is based on one simple concept: You apply explosive pressure behind a projectile to launch it down a barrel. The earliest, and simplest, application of this idea is the cannon.

A cannon is just a metal tube with a closed end and an open end. The closed end has a small fuse hole. To load the cannon, gunpowder (a mixture of charcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate) is poured in, and then a cannonball is dropped in. The gunpowder and cannonball sit in the breech, the rear part of bore, which is the open space in the cannon. To prepare the gun for a shot, a fuse (a length of flammable material) is run through the hole, so it reaches down to the gunpowder. To fire the cannon, light the fuse. The flame travels along the fuse, and finally reaches the gunpowder.
When gunpowder is ignited, it burns rapidly, producing a lot of hot gas in the process. The hot gas applies much greater pressure on the powder side of the cannonball than the air in the atmosphere applies on the other side. This propels the cannonball out of the gun at high speed.

The first handheld guns were essentially miniature cannons; first load some gunpowder, a steel ball and lit a fuse. Eventually, this technology gave way to trigger-activated weapons, such as the flint-lock gun and the percussion cap.
Flintlock guns ignited gunpowder by producing a tiny spark, while percussion caps used mercuric fulminate, an explosive compound you could ignite with a sharp blow. To load a percussion cap gun, you poured gunpowder into the breech, stuffed the projectile in on top of it, and placed a mercuric fulminate cap on top of a small nipple. To fire the gun, you cocked a hammer all the way back, and pulled the gun's trigger. The trigger released the hammer, which swung forward onto the explosive cap. The cap ignited, shooting a small flame down a tube to the gunpowder. The gunpowder exploded, launching the projectile out of the barrel.



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