1. Keep the casualty lying down, head level with the body, until you determine the extent and seriousness of the illness Injury. You must immediately recognize if the casualty has one of the following conditions.
a. Vomiting or bleeding around the mouth - If the casualty is vomiting or bleeding around the mouth, place them
on their side with head turned to the side. Special care must be taken for a casualty with aneck or back injury.
b. Difficulty breathing - If the casualty has a chest injury or difficulty breathing place in a sitting or semi position.
c. Shock - To reduce or prevent shock, place the casualty on his or her back, with their legs elevated 6 to 12
inches. If you suspect head or neck injuries or are unsure of the casualty's condition, keep them lying
flat and wait for professional medical assistance.
2. During your examination, move the casualty no more than is necessary. Loosen restrictive clothing, at the neck, waist, and where it binds. Carefully remove only enough clothing to get a clear idea of the extent of the injuries. When necessary, cut clothing along its seams. Ensure the casualty does not become chilled, and keep them as comfortable as possible. Inform the casualty of what you are doing and why. Respect the casualty's modesty, but do not jeopardize quality care. Shoes may have to be cut off to avoid causing pain or further injury.
3. Reassure the casualty that his or her injuries are understood and that professional medical assistance will arrive as soon as possible. The casualty can tolerate pain and discomfort better if they are confident in your abilities.
4. Do not touch open wounds or burns with your fingers or un-sterile objects unless it is absolutely necessary. Place a barrier between you and the casualty's blood or body fluids, using plastic wrap, gloves, or a clean, folded cloth. Wash your hands with soap and warm water immediately after providing care, even if you wore gloves.
5. Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink because it may cause vomiting, and because of the possible need for surgery. If the casualty complains of thirst, wet his or her lips with a wet towel.
6. Splint all suspected, broken or dislocated bones in the position in which they are found. Do not attempt to straighten broken or dislocated bones because of the high risk of causing further injury. Do not move the casualty.
7. When transporting, carry the casualty feet first. This enables rear bearer to observe the casualty for complications.
8. Keep the casualty comfortable and warm enough to maintain normal body temperature.
Basic life support is maintenance of the ABCs (airway, breathing, and circulation) without auxiliary equipment. The primary importance is placed on establishing and maintaining an adequate open airway. Airway obstruction alone may be the emergency: a shipmate begins choking on a piece of food. Restore breathing to reverse respiratory arrest (stopped breathing) commonly caused by electric shock, drowning, head injuries, and allergic reactions. Restore circulation to keep blood circulating and carrying oxygen to the heart, lungs, brain, and body. Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction, also known as choking, occurs when the airway (route for passage of air into and out of the lungs) becomes blocked. The restoration of breathing takes precedence over all other measures. The reason for this is simple: If a casualty cannot breathe, he or she cannot live. Individuals who are choking may stop breathing and become unconscious. The universally recognized distress signal for choking is the casualty clutching at his or her throat with one or both hands. The most common causes of airway obstruction are swallowing large pieces of improperly chewed food, drinking alcohol before or during meals, and laughing while eating. The tongue is the most common cause of obstruction in the casualty who is unconscious. A foreign body can cause a partial or complete airway obstruction. Partial Airway Obstruction
If the casualty can cough forcefully, and is able to speak, there is good air exchange. Encourage him or her to continue coughing in an attempt to dislodge the object. Do not interfere with the casualty's efforts to remove the obstruction. First aid for a partial airway obstruction is limited to encouragement and observation. When good air exchange progresses to poor air exchange, demonstrated by a weak or ineffective cough, a high-pitched noise when inhaling, and a bluish discoloration (cyanosis) of the skin (around the finger nails and lips), treat as a complete airway obstruction. Complete Airway Obstruction A complete airway obstruction presents with a completely blocked airway, and an inability to speak, cough, or breathe. If the casualty is conscious, he or she may display the universal distress signal. Ask "Are YOU choking?" If the casualty is choking, do the following:
1. Shout "Help"-Ask the casualty if you can help.
2. Request medical assistance - Say "Airway is obstructed" (blocked), call (Local emergency number or medical.
3. Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver)
a. Stand behind the casualty.
b. Place your arms around the (Fig. 2-2) casualties waist.
c. With your fist, place the thumb side against the middle of the abdomen, above the navel and below the
tip (xiphoid process) of the (sternum) breastbone.
d. Grasp your fist with your other hand.
e. Keeping your elbows out, press your fist (Fig. 2-3) into the abdomen with a quick upward thrust.
f. Repeat until the obstruction is clear or the casualty becomes unconscious.