Voltage Stability: Power system voltage stability concept, comparison of angle and voltage
stabilities, Power system loads, generator P-Q and Q-V characteristics. Voltage collapse.
Voltage stability analysis. Methods of improving voltage stability.
Distribution Automation: Introduction to distribution automation. Concepts of
communication - power line carrier, radio communication, fibre optics, satellite
communication and sensors. Introduction to supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA). Brief description of an automation system.
FACTS: Problem of AC transmission systems, basic principle of power flow control of an AC
transmission line. Basic types of FACTS controllers. Brief description of FACTS controllers-
STATCOM, Static Voltage and phase angle regulators, thyristor switched and thyristor
controlled series capacitors, Unified Power Flow Controller.
Energy Conservation: Introduction, conservation of natural resources, principles of energy
conservation and energy audit. Brief description of energy conservation in power plants,
electric utilities, electric drives, industries and electric lighting.
Superconductivity: Basic characteristics of superconductors. Brief description of
applications of superconductivity to electric power systems - superconducting generators,
motors, transformers, transmission cables and magnetic storage.

Thyristor Valve: Thyristor device, Steady state and switching characteristics, Light activated
power thyristor, LED, fiber optics, valve firing, parallel and series connections of thyristors.
Converter Circuits: Rectification and inversion, effect of reactance, six pulse and twelve pulse
converter circuits.
DC Link Control: Principles of DC link control, Converter control characteristics, System
control hierarchy, Firing angle control, Extinction angle control, Starting, stopping and power
flow reversal of DC link, Power control, Parallel operation of DC link with AC transmission
Converter faults, commutation failure, valve blocking and bypassing. Protection against over
currents, over voltages. DC circuit breakers. Reactive Power Control: Reactive power
requirement in steady state, Sources of reactive power and reactive power control.
(i)Harmonic and Filters: Generation of harmonics, AC and DC side harmonics,
characteristics and non-characteristics harmonics. Types of AC filters single tuned and
double tuned filters, high pass filter, DC Smoothing reactor and filters.
(ii) Scheme of a HVDC converter station and components of HVDC transmission system.
Multi Terminal DC (MTDC) Systems: Types of MTDC systems, Comparison of series and
parallel MTDC systems, Control and protection of MTDC systems, Application of MTDCsystems.