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Thread: Fundamentals of Plastic Mould Design pdf

  1. #1
    Active FaaDoO Engineer bablidager's Avatar
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    Pdf 32 Fundamentals of Plastic Mould Design pdf

    Click Here Download Book Fundamentals of Plastic Mould Design pdf
    Introduction
    1. Plastics Materials – An Overview 10
    1.1 Classification 11
    1.1.1 Thermoplastics 12
    1.1.2 Thermosets 12
    1.1.3 Crystalline, Amorphous, and Liquid 13
    Crystalline Polymers 13
    1.1.4 Copolymers 14
    1.1.5 Alloys 14
    1.1.6 Elastomers 14
    1.1.7 Additives, Reinforcements, and Fillers 14
    2. Physical Properties and Terminology 15
    2.1 Density 15
    2.2 Specific Gravity 15
    2.3 Water Absorption 15
    2.4 Mold Shrinkage 15
    2.5 Opacity/Transparency 16
    2.6 Elasticity 16
    2.7 Plasticity 16
    2.8 Ductility 16
    2.9 Toughness 16
    2.10 Brittleness 17
    2.11 Notch Sensitivity 17
    2.12 Lubricity 17
    2.13 Homogeneity 17
    2.14 Heterogeneity 17
    2.15 Isotropy 17
    2.16 Anistropy 17
    2.17 Significance of Elasticity, Homogeneity, 18
    and Isotropy
    3. Mechanical Properties 19
    3.1 Basic Definitions 19
    3.1.1 Stress 19
    3.1.2 Normal Stress 20
    3.1.3 Normal Strain 20
    3.1.4 Modulus of Elasticity 21
    3.1.4.1 Proportional Limit 21
    3.1.4.2 Yield Point 21
    3.1.4.3 Ultimate Strength 22
    3.1.4.4 Elastic Limit 22
    3.1.4.5 Secant Modulus 22
    3.1.4.6 Yield Strength 22
    3.1.5 Poisson’s Ratio 22
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    3
    3.1.6 Shear Stress 23
    3.1.7 Shear Modulus 23
    3.2 Relating Material Constants 23
    3.2.1 Direct Shear 23
    3.2.2 True Stress 24
    3.3 Other Measures of Strength and Modulus 24
    3.3.1 Compression Strength and Modulus 24
    3.3.2 Bending Strength and Modulus 25
    3.4 Rate Dependence of Mechanical Properties 25
    3.5 Time-Related Mechanical Properties 26
    3.5.1 Creep 26
    3.5.2 Apparent or Creep Modulus 27
    3.5.3 Creep Rupture 27
    3.5.4 Stress Relaxation 28
    3.5.5 Extrapolating Creep and Relaxation Data 28
    3.5.6 Impact Loading 28
    3.5.7 Izod Impact 28
    3.5.8 Charpy Impact 29
    3.5.9 Tensile Impact 29
    3.5.10 Falling Dart Impact Test 30
    3.5.11 Fatigue Endurance 30
    4. Thermal Properties 31
    4.1 Melting Point 31
    4.2 Glass Transition Temperature 31
    4.3 Vicat Softening Point 31
    4.4 Deflection Temperature Under Load 32
    4.5 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion 32
    4.6 Thermal Conductivity 32
    4.7 Aging at Elevated Temperatures 33
    4.8 Temperature Index (UL) 33
    4.9 Flammability 33
    4.10 Effect of Temperature on Mechanical 33
    Properties
    4.10.1 Strength, Modulus, and Elongation 33
    4.10.2 Creep 35
    4.10.3 Impact 35
    4.10.4 Fatigue 35
    5. Electrical Properties 36
    5.1 Conductivity in Solids 36
    5.2 Volume Resistivity 36
    5.3 Surface Resistivity 37
    5.4 Dielectric Strength 37
    5.5 Dielectric Constant (Permittivity) 37
    5.6 Dissipation Factor 38
    5.7 Arc Resistance 38
    5.8 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) 38
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    10
    Plastics Materials –
    An Overview
    Physical Properties
    and Terminology
    Mechanical
    Properties
    Thermal
    Properties
    Electrical Properties
    Environmental
    Considerations
    Structural
    Analysis
    Design Considerations for
    Injection-Molded Parts
    Assembly
    Machining, Finishing
    And Decorating
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    4
    6. Environmental Considerations 39
    6.1 Factors Affecting Environmental Resistance 39
    6.1.1 Stress Level 39
    6.1.2 Temperature 39
    6.1.3 Exposure 39
    6.2 Chemical Compatibility 39
    6.2.1 Reaction 39
    6.2.2 Solvation 39
    6.2.3 Plasticization 40
    6.2.4 Environmental Stress Cracking 40
    6.3 Weathering Resistance 40
    7. Structural Analysis 42
    7.1 Introduction 42
    7.2 Defining the Structure 42
    7.2.1 Loads 42
    7.2.1.1 Directly Applied Loads 42
    7.2.1.2 Strain-Induced Loads 43
    7.2.2 Support Conditions 43
    7.2.2.1 Free (Unsupported) 43
    7.2.2.2 Guided 43
    7.2.2.3 Simply Supported 43
    7.2.2.4 Held (Pinned) 43
    7.2.2.5 Fixed (also Clamped or Built-In) 43
    7.2.3 Simplifications and Assumptions 44
    7.3 Safety Factors 44
    7.3.1 Failure Criteria 44
    7.3.2 Beam Bending Stress 47
    7.3.3 Shear Stress, Torsion 47
    7.3.4 Shear Stress, Direct Shear 48
    7.4 Pressure Vessels 49
    7.5 Press-Fits 49
    7.6 Thread Strength 50
    7.7 Pipe Threads 51
    7.8 Impact Loads 52
    7.9 Thermal Stress 53
    8. Design Considerations for 55
    Injection-Molded Parts
    8.1 Injection Molding Process 55
    8.2 Design Strategy 56
    8.3 Efficient and Functional Design 56
    8.4 Material Selection 57
    8.5 Nominal Wall Thickness 58
    8.5.1 Normal Ranges of Wall Thickness 58
    8.5.2 Structural Requirements of the Nominal Wall 59
    8.5.3 Insulation Characteristics of the 59
    Nominal Wall
    8.5.4 Impact Response of the Nominal Wall 59
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    5
    1
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    10
    Plastics Materials –
    An Overview
    Physical Properties
    and Terminology
    Mechanical
    Properties
    Thermal
    Properties
    Electrical Properties
    Environmental
    Considerations
    Structural
    Analysis
    Design Considerations for
    Injection-Molded Parts
    Assembly
    Machining, Finishing
    And Decorating
    8.5.5 Agency Approvals and the Nominal Wall 59
    8.6 Draft 59
    8.7 Structural Reinforcement 60
    8.7.1 Ribs 60
    8.7.2 Other Geometric Reinforcement 62
    8.8 Bosses 62
    8.9 Coring 62
    8.10 Fillets and Radii 64
    8.11 Undercuts 65
    9. Assembly 66
    9.1 General Types of Assembly Systems 66
    9.1.1 Molded-In Assembly Systems 66
    9.1.1.1 Snap-Fit Assembly 66
    9.1.1.2 Molded-In Threads 69
    9.1.1.3 Press-Fits 69
    9.1.2 Chemical Bonding Systems 70
    9.1.2.1 Solvent Welding 70
    9.1.2.2 Adhesive Bonding 70
    9.1.3 Thermal Welding Methods 71
    9.1.3.1 Ultrasonic Welding 71
    9.1.3.2 Vibration Welding 73
    9.1.3.3 Spin Welding 74
    9.1.3.4 Radio Frequency (RF) Welding 74
    9.1.3.5 Electromagnetic or Induction Welding 74
    9.1.4 Assembly with Fasteners 75
    9.1.4.1 Bolted Assembly 75
    9.1.4.2 Threaded Metal Inserts 77
    9.1.4.3 Self-Tapping Screws 78
    9.1.4.4 Riveted Assembly 78
    9.1.4.5 Sheet Metal Nuts 78
    9.1.4.6 Specialty Plastic Fasteners 79
    10. Machining, Finishing and Decorating 80
    10.1 Machining 80
    10.1.1 Drilling and Reaming 80
    10.1.2 Thread Tapping 81
    10.1.3 Sawing, Milling, Turning, Grinding 81
    and Routing
    10.2 Finishing and Decorating 81
    10.2.1 Painting 82
    10.2.2 Vacuum Metallizing and Sputter Plating 82
    10.2.3 Electroplating 82
    10.2.4 Flame Spraying/Arc Spraying 82
    10.2.5 Hot Stamping 82
    10.2.6 Sublimation Printing 82
    10.2.7 Printing 82
    10.2.8 Decals and Labels 82
    List of Symbols 83
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    6
    List of Tables
    Table 1.01 Typical crystalline and amorphous 13
    polymers
    Table 1.02 General relative polymer properties 14
    Table 1.03 Common plastic fillers, reinforcing 14
    fibers, and other additives
    Table 3.01 Typical values of Poisson’s ratio 22
    Table 4.01 Typical values for coefficient of linear 32
    thermal expansion for thermoplastics
    and other common materials
    Table 5.01 Typical values of volume resistivity 36
    for thermoplastics
    Table 5.02 Typical values of dielectric constant and 38
    dissipation factor for various
    thermoplastics at room temperature
    Table 6.01 Chemical resistance of various materials 41
    by chemical classes
    Table 7.01 Design strength for preliminary 44
    part design
    Table 8.01 Typical nominal thickness for various 58
    classes of thermoplastics
    Table 8.02 Dimension difference versus draft 59
    angle
    Table 8.03 Summary of the effect of rib and cross- 61
    section change in example, Figure 8.07
    Table 10.01 Approximate drilling speed and feed 81
    rate for 1/4–3/8 in. hole in various
    thermoplastics
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    7
    List of Figures
    Fig. 1.01 Example of increasing molecular weight 11
    Fig. 1.02 Plastic classification 11
    Fig. 1.03 Thermoplastic molecular chains 12
    Fig. 1.04 Thermoset cross-linked molecules 12
    Fig. 1.05 Two dimensional representation of 13
    crystalline, amorphous, and liquid
    crystalline structure
    Fig. 2.01 Density and specific gravity 15
    Fig. 2.02 Mold shrinkage 15
    Fig. 2.03 Material exhibiting elasticity / plasticity 16
    Fig. 2.04 Toughness can be measured by the area 16
    under the stress-strain curve
    Fig. 2.05 Anistropy of wood 17
    Fig. 2.06 Mold shrinkage of anisotropic plastics 18
    Fig. 3.01 Internal forces, stresses in a body 19
    Fig. 3.02 Simple tension load 20
    Fig. 3.03 Typical test setup and specimen 20
    Fig. 3.04 Plot of results of tensile test (stress- 21
    strain curve)
    Fig. 3.05 Typical stress-strain curves 21
    Fig. 3.06 Loaded tensile bar showing dimensional 22
    change in length and width
    Fig. 3.07 Shear stress 23
    Fig. 3.08 Direct shear stress test used in plastics 23
    industry
    Fig. 3.09 True stress 24
    Fig. 3.10 Tensile and compressive moduli 24
    Fig. 3.11 Beam in bending 25
    Fig. 3.12 A simple bending fixture 25
    Fig. 3.13 Typical presentation of creep data 26
    Fig. 3.14 Creep modulus 27
    Fig. 3.15 Creep rupture data – a curve showing 27
    one cycle log time projection
    Fig. 3.16 Examples of constant strain loads 28
    Fig. 3.17 Izod and Charpy impact tests 29
    Fig. 3.18 Tensile impact 29
    Fig. 3.19 A typical dart impact apparatus 30
    Fig. 3.20 Typical S-N curve is shown along with 30
    thermal effects which sometimes occur
    when plastics are fatigue tested
    Fig. 4.01 Vicat softening point apparatus 31
    Fig. 4.02 Test apparatus for deflection temperature 32
    under load
    Fig. 4.03 Effect of temperature or strain rate 33
    on stress-strain curves
    Fig. 4.04 Modulus behavior of crystalline and 34
    amorphous resin showing Tg and melt
    temperatures and the effect of
    reinforcement on HDT
    Fig. 4.05 Effect of temperature on tensile elongation 34
    1
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    9
    10
    Plastics Materials –
    An Overview
    Physical Properties
    and Terminology
    Mechanical
    Properties
    Thermal
    Properties
    Electrical Properties
    Environmental
    Considerations
    Structural
    Analysis
    Design Considerations for
    Injection-Molded Parts
    Assembly
    Machining, Finishing
    And Decorating
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    8
    Fig. 4.06 Apparent modulus curves at different 34
    temperatures showing time-temperature
    shifting to estimate expanded time values
    at lower temperatures
    Fig. 4.07 Creep rupture curves indicating danger of 34
    linear projection to longer times at
    lower temperatures
    Fig. 5.01 Free electrons in a metal lattice 36
    Fig. 5.02 One type of text apparatus for volume 37
    and surface resistivity
    Fig. 5.03 A typical test configuration for dielectric 37
    strength
    Fig. 5.04 A typical test configuration for arc 38
    resistance
    Fig. 7.01 Directly applied loads 42
    Fig. 7.02 Strain-induced loads 42
    Fig. 7.03 Support conditions 43
    Fig. 7.04 Section properties for some common 45
    cross-sections (na = neutral axis)
    Fig. 7.05 Maximum stress and deflection equations 46
    for selected beams
    Fig. 7.06 Shaft of diameter, d, and length, L, 47
    subjected to torque, T, with angular
    deformation, θ
    Fig. 7.07 Polar moments of inertia for common 48
    cross-sections
    Fig. 7.08 Direct shear examples 48
    Fig. 7.09 Cylindrical pressure vessel, thin wall tube 49
    Fig. 7.10 Cylindrical pressure vessel, thick wall tube 49
    Fig. 7.11 Press-fit equations for two typical 50
    situations
    Fig. 7.12 Illustration for torque-force relationships 50
    for screw threads
    Fig. 7.13 Designing with pipe threads 52
    Fig. 7.14 Estimating impact stress and deflection 53
    due to dropping a weight on the part
    Fig. 7.15 Typical assemblies in which thermal 54
    stresses can become a problem
    Fig. 7.16 Equations of thermal expansions for 54
    various conditions
    Fig. 8.01 Schematic of reciprocating screw injection 55
    molding machine
    Fig. 8.02 Injection-molded one piece housing 56
    replaces fabricated sheet metal and many
    miscellaneous parts and eliminates most
    assembly operations
    Fig. 8.03 Minimize material usage for plastic 56
    redesign
    Fig. 8.04 Some typical spiral flow curves 58
    Fig. 8.05 Illustration of draft and associated 59
    dimension change with draft angle
    Designing With Plastic
    The Fundamentals
    9
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    Plastics Materials –
    An Overview
    Physical Properties
    and Terminology
    Mechanical
    Properties
    Thermal
    Properties
    Electrical Properties
    Environmental
    Considerations
    Structural
    Analysis
    Design Considerations for
    Injection-Molded Parts
    Assembly
    Machining, Finishing
    And Decorating
    Fig. 8.06 Interaction of wall thickness, load, 60
    stress, and deflection for a rectangular
    cross-section in bending
    Fig. 8.07 Example of the effect of ribs on 60
    rectangular cross-section
    Fig. 8.08 Rib design for reinforcing thermoplastic 61
    parts
    Fig. 8.09 Modifications to nominal wall to improve 62
    structural response
    Fig. 8.10 Design of bosses 63
    Fig. 8.11 Coring examples 64
    Fig. 8.12 Typical stress concentration factor 64
    Fig. 8.13 Creating “undercuts” with simple tooling 65
    Fig. 9.01 Snap-fit design for cantilever beam with 67
    rectangular cross section
    Fig. 9.02 Tooling for snap-fit fingers 68
    Fig. 9.03 Snap-on / Snap-in fits 68
    Fig. 9.04 Molded plastic threads 69
    Fig. 9.05 Alternative press-fit designs for metal 69
    pins in plastic hubs
    Fig. 9.06 Typical joint designs for solvent and 70
    adhesive bonding
    Fig. 9.07 Typical ultrasonic welding equipment 71
    Fig. 9.08 A basic shear/interference joint 71
    Fig. 9.09 Basic energy director joint design 71
    Fig. 9.10A Energy director 72
    Fig. 9.10B Shear joints 72
    Fig. 9.10C Scarf joints 73
    Fig. 9.11 Ultrasonic staking, swaging, and spot 73
    welding
    Fig. 9.12 Typical joints for vibration welding 73
    Fig. 9.13 Preform in place for electromagnetic 74
    welding
    Fig. 9.14 The electromagnetic welding process 75
    Fig. 9.15 Five basic joint designs for induction 75
    welding
    Fig. 9.16 Bolt assembly, stress problems 76
    and solutions
    Fig. 9.17 Common threaded metal inserts 77
    Fig. 9.18 Ultrasonic inserts designed for installation 77
    standard ultrasonic equipment
    Fig. 9.19 Typical screws used with plastics 78
    Fig. 9.20 A typical boss cap 78
    Fig. 9.21 A typical push-nut assembly 79



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  2. #2
    Fuchcha FaaDoO Engineer
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    Re: Fundamentals of Plastic Mould Design pdf

    thank u very much

  3. #3
    Fuchcha FaaDoO Engineer
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    Re: Fundamentals of Plastic Mould Design pdf

    ur done fantastice job

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