A Project Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of The

Requirements for the Award of Degree of




Submitted by

Anil Kumar
Roll No. 56141603

Under the guidance of

Er. D N Yadav
Assistant Professor


I hereby state that the work is being presented in this dissertation entitled, “STUDY OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Technology (Electrical Engineering) in the Department of Electrical Engineering ,at Indus Institute of Engineering & Technology ,Jind (KUK University, Kurukshetra), is an authentic record of my work carried out under the supervision of Assistant prof. D.N Yadav , and refers other research’s work which are dully listed in the reference section. That any other degree to the other university.

Date: Anil Kumar
Place (56141603)

This is to certify that the work contained in this report, titled STUDY OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL” submitted by Anil Kumar is an authentic work that has been carried out by them under my supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment for the requirement for the award of Master of Technology in Electrical Engineering at Indus Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jind. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the report has not been submitted to any other University/ Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Place: Kinana, Jind
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indus Institute of Engg. &Technology
Kinana, Jind.


I am highly grateful to Er. D N YADAV, Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indus Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kinana, Jind for providing this opportunity to carry out the present work.

I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thanks profusely to my supervisor, Er.D N YADAV Asst. Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIET KINANA,JIND. Without his wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been impossible to complete the present work.

I also express my gratitude to other faculty members of the department for their intellectual support throughout the course of this work.

The copious help received from the technical staff of the department for the excellent laboratory support is also acknowledged.

Finally, I am indebted to all whosoever have contributed to provide help to carry out the present work.

Date: Anil Kumar



The depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to meet up the present day demands. Solar energy is clean, inexhaustible and environment-friendly potential resource among renewable energy options. But neither a standalone solar photovoltaic system nor a wind energy system can provide a continuous supply of energy due to seasonal and periodic variations. Therefore, in order to satisfy the load demand, grid connected energy systems are now being implemented that combine solar and conventional conversion units.

Table of Contents

Chapter 01
1.2.1 Primary and Secondary Energy
1.2.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy
1.2.3 Renewable and Non- Renewable Energy
1.3.1 World Energy Scenario
1.3.2 Energy Scenario in India Status of renewable energy in India Solar power as a solution to the Indian power scenario Solar PV applications in India

Chapter 02
2.2.1 Basic theory of photovoltaic cell
2.2.3 Series and parallel connection of PV cells
2.2.4 Types of Photovoltaic cells
2.4.1 The standard V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module
2.4.2 Impact of solar radiation on V-I characteristics curve of PV Module
2.4.3 Impact of Temperature on V-I characteristics curve of PV module
2.4.4 Impact of shading effect on V-I characteristic curve of PV module
Chapter 03
Chapter 04
4.10.1 Mean Global Solar Radiant Exposure
4.10.2 Pattern of Energy Generation
Chapter 05
Chapter 06


List of Abbreviations

kWp kilo Watt peak

SPV Solar Photovoltaic

MWh Mega Watt hour

GW Giga watt

MW Mega watt

MT Metric Tonnes

MU Million Units

I(sc) Short circuit current

V(oc) Open circuit voltage

KVA Kilo Volt Ampere




Energy plays a pivotal role in our daily activities. The degree of development and civilization of a country is measured by the amount of utilization of energy by human beings. Energy demand is increasing day by day due to increase in population, urbanization and industrialization. The world‟s fossil fuel supply viz. coal, petroleum and natural gas will thus be depleted in a few hundred years. The rate of energy consumption increasing, supply is depleting resulting in inflation and energy shortage. This is called energy crisis. Hence alternative or renewable sources of energy have to be developed to meet future energy requirement.


Energy can be classified into several types:

1.2.1 Primary and Secondary Energy

Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy sources available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earth’s interior, and potential energy due to earth’s gravity. The major primary and secondary energy sources are Coal, hydro power, natural gas, petroleum etc.

Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity. Primary energy can also be used directly. Some energy sources have non-energy uses, for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock in fertilizer plants.

1.2.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy

The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commercial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity, coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural, transport and

commercial development in the modern world. In the industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also for many household tasks of general population.

The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classified as non-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting.

1.2.3 Renewable and Non- Renewable Energy

All forms of energy are stored in different ways, in the energy sources that we use every day. These sources are divided into two groups -- renewable (an energy source that we can use over and over again) and nonrenewable (an energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time).

Figure 1.1: Renewable Energy Sources and Non-Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources can be used to produce secondary energy sources including electricity and hydrogen. Renewable energy sources include solar energy, which comes from the sun and can be turned into electricity and heat. Wind, geothermal energy from inside the earth, biomass from plants, and hydropower and ocean energy from water are also renewable energy sources.

However, we get most of our energy from non-renewable energy sources, which include the fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal. They're called fossil fuels because they were formed over millions and millions of years by the action of heat from the Earth's core and pressure from rock and soil on the remains (or "fossils") of dead plants and animals. Another nonrenewable energy source is the element uranium, whose atoms we split (through a process called nuclear fission) to create heat and ultimately electricity.

We use all these energy sources to generate the electricity we need for our homes, businesses, schools, and factories. Electricity "energizes" our computers, lights, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners, to name only a few uses. We use energy to run our cars and trucks. Both the gasoline used in our cars, and the diesel fuel used in our trucks are made from oil. The propane that fuels our outdoor grills and makes hot air balloons soar is made from oil and natural gas.


The present energy scenario is discussed under categorical division of World, India.

1.3.1 World Energy Scenario
The world is increasingly aware that fundamental changes will be necessary to meet the growing demand for energy. There are many possible scenarios about what may emerge in the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption – including oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydro power – fell by 1.1% . Hydroelectric power generation increased by 1.5%.

. Power generation capacity in world by source

Energy Scenario in India

The utility electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 284.303 GW as of 31 December 2015.Renewable Power plants constituted 28% of total installed capacity and Non-Renewable Power Plants constituted the remaining 72%. The gross electricity generated by utilities is 1,106 TWh (1,106,000 GWh) and 166 TWh by captive power plants during the 2014–15 fiscal.[3] The gross electricity generation includes auxiliary power consumption of power generation plants. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year 2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia.
The Indian power sector is highly dependent on coal as a fuel, with 53% of the total installed capacity being coal based generation. Given the current scenario, coal consumption by the power sector is likely to reach levels of 173 mn Metric Tones . According to the Ministry of Coal, the existing coal reserves are estimated to last for another 40-45 years.

Power generation capacity in India by source

About 11% of the total power is sourced from oil & gas. Apart from automobiles and industry, the power sector is the largest importer of oil & gas in India. For 2008, the total oil imports accounted for 7% of the GDP.
India‟s per capita consumption of energy is far lower than that of the world average. Even with such a low per capita consumption, during the year 2008-09, the power deficit is about 11% in total demand and a deficit of more than 12% in peak load demand. This clearly signifies that the available fuel is not sufficient to meet the rising demand for energy of India.

Status of renewable energy in India

In the present scenario, renewable resources emerge as the best alternative. At present, renewable energy accounts for about 11% of India’s installed generation capacity of 152 GW. Much of this capacity is wind-based (about 11 GW), with the share of solar power being only about 6 MW. India is blessed with an abundance of non-depleting and environmentally friendly renewable resources, such as solar, wind, biomass, hydro and cogeneration and geothermal. Wind energy sector, which has shown tremendous growth in the recent year, dominates the renewable energy sector in India.
India has an abundance of solar radiation, with the peninsula receiving more than 300 sunny days in a year. PV is progressively becoming more attractive, than other renewable sources of power, as its cost declines. The various factors leading to decline in cost includes setting up of large scale plants, integration across the value chain, declining cost of raw material, reducing material consumption and higher efficiency of modules. Solar power as a solution to the Indian power scenario

Due to its proximity to the equator, India receives abundant sunlight throughout the year. Solar PV solution has the potential to transform the lives of 450 million people, who rely on highly subsidized kerosene oil and other fuels, primarily to light up their homes. Renewable energy source is a practical solution to address the persistent demand supply gap in the power industry. The following features of solar power make it the most viable renewable source of energy for India:

• Solar energy is available in abundance.

• Available across the country – unlike other renewable sources, which have geographical limitations

• Available throughout the year

• Decentralized / off-grid applications – addressing rural electrification issues

• Modularity and scalability.

The PV approach is particularly suited for the geographical and socio-economic features of this country having highly skewed energy distribution between urban and rural areas. Solar PV applications in India

The range of applications for solar PV in India is very different from the global mix. Globally, grid connectivity accounts for nearly 75% of the installed capacity and off-grid lighting and consumer applications for the balance 25%. Currently, PV installations in India, almost entirely consist of off-grid connectivity and small capacity applications, used mostly for public lighting, such as street lighting, traffic lighting, and domestic power back up in urban areas and small electrification systems and solar lanterns in the rural areas. In recent years, it is also being used for powering water pumps for farming and small industrial areas. Government organizations like railways, telecom and other agencies are the major consumers of PV solar systems in India [23]. The installed base of solar PV systems in India as of December 2009 is given below:

The usage of conventional energy resources in industry leads to environmental damages by polluting the atmosphere. Few of examples of air pollution are Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrous oxide (NOX) and Carbon oxides (CO, CO2) emissions from boilers and furnaces, chloro-fluro carbons (CFC) emissions from refrigerants use, etc. In chemical and fertilizers industries, toxic gases are released. Cement plants and power plants spew out particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). But most of the renewable energy is pollution free. So it will be better to go for renewable energies.


Various types of non-conventional energy sources are such as geothermal ocean tides, wind and sun. All non-conventional energy sources have geographical limitations. but Solar energy has less geographical limitation as compared to other non-conventional energy sources because solar energy is available over the entire globe, and only the size of the collector field needs to be increased to provide the same amount of heat or electricity. It is the primary task of the solar energy system designer to determine the amount, quality and timing of the solar energy available at the site selected for installing a solar energy conversion system so among all these solar energy seems to hold out the greatest promise for the mankind. It is free, inexhaustible, non-polluting and devoid of political control. Solar water heaters, space heaters and cookers are already on the market and seem to be economically viable. Solar photo voltaic cells, solar refrigerators and solar thermal power plants will be 'technically and economically viable in a short time. It is optimistically estimated that 50% of the world power requirements in the middle of 21st century will come only from solar energy. Enough strides have been made during last two decades to develop the direct energy conversion systems to increase the plant efficiency 60% to 70% by avoiding the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy. Still this technology is on the threshold of the success and it is hoped that this will also play a vital role in power generation in coming future.


In one minute, the sun provides enough energy to supply the world’s energy needs for one year.

In one day, it provides more energy than the world’s population could consume in 27years. The energy is free and the supply is unlimited. All we need to do is find a way to use it. The largest solar electric generating plant in the world produces a maximum of 354 megawatts (MW) of electricity and is located at Kramer Junction, California. Since India has abundant sources of RE especially sunlight, it can cater to all the energy needs of the country. The country receives an average radiation of 5 KWh per square meter (m) per day and with 2300 to 3200 sunshine hours per year. The potential of solar photovoltaic has therefore been estimated at 20 MW per square km and that of solar thermal applications at 35 Mw per sq m.


There are two ways by which we can convert solar energy into electrical energy. These are as
Ø Solar thermal: The solar collectors concentrate sunlight to heat a heat transfer fluid to a high temperature. The hot heat transfer fluid is then used to generate steam that drives the power conversion subsystem, producing electricity. Thermal energy storage provides heat for operation during periods without adequate sunshine.

Ø Solar Photovoltaic: Another way to generate electricity from solar energy is to use photovoltaic cells; magic slivers of silicon that converts the solar energy falling on them directly into electricity. Large scale applications of photovoltaic for power generation, either on the rooftops of houses or in large fields connected to the utility grid are promising as well to provide clean, safe and strategically sound alternatives to current methods of electricity generation.

Solar Photovoltaic


Many people associate solar energy directly with photovoltaic and not with solar thermal power generation. In contrast to photovoltaic‟s plants, solar thermal power plants are not based on the photo effect, but generate electricity from the heat produced by sunlight. A fossil burner can drive the water-steam cycle during periods of bad weather or at night. In contrast to photovoltaic‟s systems, solar thermal power plants can guarantee capacity. Due to their modularity, photovoltaic operation covers a wide range from less than one Watt to several megawatts and solar thermal power plants are small units in the kilowatt range. On the other hand, Global solar irradiance consists of direct and diffuse irradiance. When skies are overcast, only diffuse irradiance is available. While solar thermal power plants can only use direct irradiance for power generation, photovoltaic systems can convert the diffuse irradiance as well. That means, they can produce some electricity even with cloud-covered skies. From economical point of view market introduction of photovoltaic systems is much more aggressive than that of solar thermal power plants, cost reduction can be expected to be faster for photovoltaic systems. But even if there is a 50% cost reduction in photovoltaic systems and no cost reduction at all in solar thermal power plants. Thus we conclude that solar PV power plant is better than solar thermal power plant. In the next chapter we study about solar photovoltaic technology.



Photovoltaics offer consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. Photovoltaic systems are comprised of photovoltaic cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity. Because the source of light is usually the sun, they are often called solar cells. The word photovoltaic comes from “photo” meaning light and “voltaic” which refers to producing electricity. Therefore, the photovoltaic process is “producing electricity directly from sunlight. Photovoltaic are often referred to as PV.


In 1839 Edmond Becquerel accidentally discovered photovoltaic effect when he was working on solid-state physics. In 1878 Adam and Day presented a paper on photovoltaic effect. In 1883 Fxitz fabricated the first thin film solar cell. In 1941 Ohl fabricated silicon PV cell but that was very inefficient. In 1954 Bell labs Chopin, Fuller, Pearson fabricated PV cell with efficiency of 6%. In 1958 PV cell was used as a backup power source in satellite Vanguard-1. This extended the life of satellite for about 6 years [24].


A device that produces an electric reaction to light, producing electricity. PV cells do not use the sun’s heat to produce electricity. They produce electricity directly when sunlight interacts with semiconductor materials in the PV cells.

Figure 2.1: Photovoltaic cell

“A typical PV cell made of crystalline silicon is 12 centimeters in diameter and 0.25 millimeters thick. In full sunlight, it generates 4 amperes of direct current at 0.5 volts or 2 watts of electrical power .

2.2.1 Basic theory of photovoltaic cell

Photovoltaic cells are made of silicon or other semi conductive materials that are also used in LSIs and transistors for electronic equipment. Photovoltaic cells use two types of semiconductors, one is P-type and other is N-type to generate electricity.
When sunlight strikes a semiconductor, it generates pairs of electrons (-) and protons (+).

Figure 2.2: Basic theory of photovoltaic cell 1

Ø When an electron (-) and a proton (+) reach the joint surface between the two types of semiconductors, the former is attracted to N-type and the latter to the P-type

semiconductor. Since the joint surface supports only one-way traffic, they are not able to rejoin once they are drawn apart and separated.

Figure 2.3: Basic theory of photovoltaic cell 2

Ø Since the N-type semiconductor now contains an electron (-), and P-type semiconductor contains a proton (+), an electromotive (voltage) force is generated. Connect both

electrodes with conductors and the electrons runs from N- type to P-type semiconductors, and the proton from P-type to N-type semiconductors to make an electrical current.

Figure 2.4: Basic theory of photovoltaic cell 3

2.2.2 Series and parallel connection of PV cells

Solar cells can be thought of as solar batteries. If solar cells are connected in series, then the
current stays the same and the voltage increases.

Figure 2.5: Series connection of cells

If solar cells are connected in parallel, the voltage stays the same, but the current increases.

Figure 2.6: Parallel connection of cells

As we know those Solar cells are combined to form a „module‟ to obtain the voltage and current

(and therefore power) desired.

2.2.3 Types of Photovoltaics cells

There are essentially two types of PV technology, crystalline and thin-film. Crystalline can again be broken down into two types:

Ø Monocrystalline Cells - These are made using cells cut from a single cylindrical crystal of silicon. While monocrystalline cells offer the highest efficiency (approximately 18% conversion of incident sunlight), their complex manufacturing process makes them slightly more expensive.
Ø Polycrystalline Cells - These are made by cutting micro-fine wafers from ingots of molten and recrystallized silicon. Polycrystalline cells are cheaper to produce, but there is a slight compromise on efficiency (approximately 14% conversion of incident sunlight).

Thin film PV is made by depositing an ultra-thin layer of photovoltaic material onto a substrate. The most common type of thin-film PV is made from the material a-Si (amorphous silicon), but numerous other materials such as CIGS (copper indium/gallium diselenide) CIS (copper indium selenide), CdTe (Cadmium Teluride), dye-sensitized cells and organic solar cells are also possible.


PV cells are the basic building blocks of PV modules. For almost all applications, the one-half volt produced by a single cell is inadequate. Therefore, cells are connected together in series to increase the voltage. Several of these series strings of cells may be connected together in parallel to increase the current as well.

These interconnected cells and their electrical connections are then sandwiched between a top layer of glass or clear plastic and a lower level of plastic or plastic and metal. An outer frame is attached to increase mechanical strength, and to provide a way to mount the unit. This package is called a "module" or "panel". Typically, a module is the basic building block of photovoltaic systems. PV modules consist of PV cells connected in series (to increase the voltage) and in parallel (to increase the current), so that the output of a PV system can match the requirements of the load to be powered. The PV cells in a module can be wired to any desired voltage and current.

The amount of current produced is directly proportional to the cell‟s size, conversion efficiency, and the intensity of light. Groups of 36 series connected PV cells are packaged together into standard modules that provide a nominal 12 volt (or 18 volts @ peak power). PV modules were originally configured in this manner to charge 12-volt batteries.


To insure compatibility with storage batteries or loads, it is necessary to know the electrical characteristics of photovoltaic modules. As a reminder, "I" is the abbreviation for current, expressed in amps. "V" is used for voltage in volts, and "R" is used for resistance in ohms.

2.4.1 The standard V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module
A photovoltaic module will produce its maximum current when there is essentially no resistance in the circuit. This would be a short circuit between its positive and negative terminals. This maximum current is called the short circuit current, abbreviated I(sc). When the module is shorted, the voltage in the circuit is zero.

Conversely, the maximum voltage is produced when there is a break in the circuit. This is called the open circuit voltage, abbreviated V(oc). Under this condition the resistance is infinitely high and there is no current, since the circuit is incomplete [28].

These two extremes in load resistance, and the whole range of conditions in between them, are depicted on a graph called a I-V (current-voltage) curve. Current, expressed in amps, is on the vertical Y-axis. Voltage, in volts, is on the horizontal X-axis as in Figure.

Graph 2.1: The standard V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module

As you can see in above Figure, the short circuit current occurs on a point on the curve where the voltage is zero. The open circuit voltage occurs where the current is zero. The power available from a photovoltaic module at any point along the curve is expressed in watts. Watts are calculated by multiplying the voltage times the current (watts = volts × amps, or W = VA).

At the short circuit current point, the power output is zero, since the voltage is zero.
At the open circuit voltage point, the power output is also zero, but this time it is because the current is zero.
There is a point on the "knee" of the curve where the maximum power output is located. This point on our example curve is where the voltage is 17 volts, and the current is 2.5 amps. Therefore, the maximum power in watts is 17 volts’ times 2.5 amps, equaling 42.5 watts.

The power, expressed in watts, at the maximum power point is described as peak, maximum, or ideal, among other terms. Maximum power is generally abbreviated as "I (mp)." Various manufacturers call it maximum output power, output, peak power, rated power, or other terms. The current-voltage (I-V) curve is based on the module being under standard conditions of sunlight and module temperature. It assumes there is no shading on the module.

2.4.2 Impact of solar radiation on V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module

Standard sunlight conditions on a clear day are assumed to be 1000 watts of solar energy per square meter (1000 W/m2). This is sometimes called "one sun," or a "peak sun." Less than one sun will reduce the current output of the module by a proportional amount. For example, if only one-half sun (500 W/m2) is available, the amount of output current is roughly cut in half.

Graph 2.2: Change in Photovoltaic module voltage and current on change in solar radiation

For maximum output, the face of the photovoltaic modules should be pointed as straight toward the sun as possible.

2.4.3 Impact of temperature on V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module

Module temperature affects the output voltage inversely. Higher module temperatures will reduce the voltage by 0.04 to 0.1 volts for every one Celsius degree rise in temperature (0.04V/0C to 0.1V/0C). In Fahrenheit degrees, the voltage loss is from 0.022 to 0.056 volts per degree of temperature rise.

Graph 2.3: A Typical Current-Voltage Curve for a Module at 25°C (77°F) and 85°C (185°F)

This is why modules should not be installed flush against a surface. Air should be allowed to circulate behind the back of each module so it's temperature does not rise and reducing its output. An air space of 4-6 inches is usually required to provide proper ventilation.

2.4.4 Impact of shading effect on V-I characteristic curve of Photovoltaic Module

Because photovoltaic cells are electrical semiconductors, partial shading of the module will cause the shaded cells to heat up. They are now acting as inefficient conductors instead of electrical generators. Partial shading may ruin shaded cells. Partial module shading has a serious effect on module power output. For a typical module, completely shading only one cell can reduce the module output by as much as 80%. One or more damaged cells in a module can have the same effect as shading.

Graph 2.4: A Typical Current-Voltage Curve for an Unshaded Module and for a Module with One Shaded Cell

This is why modules should be completely unshaded during operation. A shadow across a module can almost stop electricity production. Thin film modules are not as affected by this problem, but they should still be unshaded.


Desired power, voltage, and current can be obtained by connecting individual PV modules in series and parallel combinations in much the same way as batteries. When modules are fixed together in a single mount they are called a panel and when two or more panels are used together, they are called an array. Single panels are also called arrays. When circuits are wired in series (positive to negative), the voltage of each panel is added together but the amperage remains the same. When circuits are wired in parallel (positive to positive, negative to negative), the voltage of each panel remains the same and the amperage of each panel is added. This wiring principle is used to build photovoltaic (PV) modules. Photovoltaic modules can then be wired together to create PV arrays.

Figure 2.7: PV cells are combined to create PV modules, which are linked to create PV arrays



The main elements that can be included in a system of photovoltaic conversion are [4]: Batteries,

Photovoltaic Modules, Loads DC and AC, Load Regulators, Invertors, Converters...

Ø Batteries: Normally they have been considered as a simple element of storage of electrical energy. Batteries are often sold with a PV system. The primary purpose is to store the electricity not immediately used, which could be used at some later time. With net metering, the value of batteries is less because the utility grid basically acts as a storage facility. For a reliable generation system that can function independent of the utility grid, however, batteries may be a viable component to the total system. Back-up generators may be included in a system to provide power when the PV system is not operating, and are generally included when systems are not grid connected. Neither batteries nor generators are eligible for rebate money.
Ø Solar panel: The solar panel is the power source of all photovoltaic installation. It is the result of a set of photovoltaic cells in series and parallel. Solar panel gives power to battery or inverter through charge controller (Regulator).


PV technology was first applied in space, by providing electricity to satellites. Today, PV systems can be used to power just about anything on Earth. On the basis working operation PV systems operate in four basic forms.

Grid Connected PV Systems - These systems are connected to a broader electricity network. The PV system is connected to the utility grid using a high quality inverter, which converts DC power from the solar array into AC power that conforms to the grid’s electrical requirements. During the day, the solar electricity generated by the system is either used immediately or sold off to electricity supply companies. In the evening, when the system is unable to supply immediate power, electricity can be bought back from the network.

Regulator: It is the element to protect the battery against to risking situations as overloads and over discharges. The theoretical formulation of the model can be simple, although it is necessary to consider the peculiar discontinuities of the model and the inter performance with the rest of the analyzed models.

Inverter: The inverter allows transforming the DC current to AC. A photovoltaic installation that incorporates an inverter can belong to two different situations, based on the characteristics of the alternating network. In first an isolated system, where the inverter is the element of the network and has to feed the set of loads and in second situation the inverter is connected to the public network, to which it sends the energy generated by the system.

Converter: The positioning of a converter between the panels and the batteries will improve the whole photovoltaic installation, allowing different controls from the system. Depending on the applied regulation, the panels will contribute to the maximum energy given to the system or the optimal energy for their operation, assuring an efficient charge of the battery.

Load: It is the component responsible to absorb this energy and transform it into work.

Standalone Systems: PV systems not connected to the electric utility grid are known as Off Grid PV Systems and also called „stand-alone systems. ‟ Direct systems use the PV Power immediately as it is produced, while battery storage systems can store energy to be used at a later time, either at night or during cloudy weather. These systems are used in isolation of electricity grids, and may be used to power radio repeater stations, telephone booths and street lighting. PV systems also provide invaluable and affordable electricity in developing countries like India, where conventional electricity grids are unreliable or non-existent.

Off Grid PV System
Hybrid System: A hybrid system combines PV with other forms of power generation, usually a diesel generator. Biogas is also used. The other form of power generation is usually a type which is able to modulate power output as a function of demand. However more than one form of renewable energy may be used e.g. wind and solar. The photovoltaic power generation serves to reduce the consumption of non-renewable

Grid Tied with Battery Backup PV system: Solar energy stored in batteries can be used at nighttime. Using net metering, unused solar power can be sold back to the grid. With this system, you will have power even if your neighborhood has lost power.


Because as day by day the demand of electricity is increased and that much demand cannot be meeting up by the conventional power plants. And also these plants create pollution. So if we go for the renewable energy it will be better but throughout the year the generation of all renewable energy power plants. Grid tied PV system is more reliable than other PV system. No use of battery reduces its capital cost so we go for the grid connected topology. If generated solar energy is integrated to the conventional grid, it can supply the demand from morning to afternoon (total 6 hours mainly in sunny days) that is the particular time range when the SPV system can fed to grid. As no battery backup is there, that means the utility will continue supply to the rest of the time period. Grid-connected systems have demonstrated an advantage in natural disasters by providing emergency power capabilities when utility power was interrupted. Although PV power is generally more expensive than utility-provided power, the use of grid connected systems is increasing.




It is important to state that the amount of literature on solar energy, the solar energy system and PV grid connected systems is enormous. So much study is needed to design a grid connected PV system without battery backup accurately from first principles. The author of this thesis has attended courses on the subject, read books, journals and papers. This chapter will cover just a little portion of that enormous amount of literature.


Several works are going on solar photovoltaic systems. Some of these are discussed below:

Prakasit Sritakaew, Anawach Sangswang, and Krissanapong Kirtikara presented a paper about On the Reliability Improvement of Distribution Systems Using PV Grid-Connected Systems. The purpose of their paper was to examine issues related to the distribution system reliability improvement using photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected systems. The output characteristics of a PV system were experimentally measured. The measured data were used to investigate the effects of PV system installation to improve the distribution system's reliability. The system constraints such as, recovered real power, and loading reduction of the tie line/switch after the installation of PV grid-connected systems are concentrated. Simulation results show that with the action of a tie switch, system losses and loading level of the tie switch can be reduced with proper installation location.

Allen M. Barnett [2] presented a paper about solar electrical power for a better tomorrow. The promise of solar electricity based on the photovoltaic (PV) effect is well known. Why don‟t we see these systems all over the world? Consumers in the United States are well-known for their attraction to new technology. Why aren‟t PV systems appearing on roof-tops in the U.S.?

The answer may be that grid-connected roof top systems are Too difficult to acquire, Too difficult to integrate with the grid, Too difficult to measure the energy and Too expensive .It is essential that we make PV systems user friendly, while reducing the component and system costs. Our elegant technology must be reduced to practical systems that can be used by the average person - everywhere.

Brig.M.R.Narayaoan, D.V.Gupta, R.C.Gupta & R.S.Gupta [7] presented a paper about Design, Development and Installation of 100 kW utility grid connected solar PV plants for rural application- an Indian experience. This paper briefly describes tile features of the two power plants, the developmental approach adopted based on "Building Block Philosophy" With 25 KW System as the basic unit with the attendant advantages. It includes the indigenous design and development effort made for grid connected operation and most importantly the special design features incorporated to ensure a very high degree of safety and protection so necessary in the rural areas with predominantly non-literate users. Tile paper is concluded with some important lessons learnt from both the technical and logistics point of view for guiding installation of similar such plants in the remote rural areas in India and other developing countries in the future.

Wang Jianqiang & Li Jingxin [8] researched two grid connected photovoltaic power systems. One is 10kW located in Beijing, the other is 100kW located in north of Shan‟xi province of China. Inverter and its different operation of modes for both the photovoltaic power system were discussed. For 10kW Photovoltaic power system, the single phase transformers less grid-connecting inverters are applied to this system. The inverters have two-stage structure, DC-DC and DC-AC, but they often operates only with last DC-AC stage according to the panel string output voltage. For 100kW photovoltaic power system, 3 phase transformer less grid-connecting inverters are used. But they concluded that although all the inverters in two systems have two stage structures, only single stage were designed to work during most of time. Because the system efficiency can be increased availably. So large photovoltaic power system should adopt series-wound panels for high operating voltage and less loss. The research shows the correlation. The output power quality of one inverter of 10kW systems was analyzed, too.

B. Marion,J. Adelstein,K. Boyle and fellows [9] presented a paper about performance parameters for Grid-Connected PV systems. Three performance parameters may be used to define the performance of grid-connected PV systems: final PV system yield Yf, reference yield Yr, and performance ratio PR. The Yf and PR are determined using the nameplate d.c. power rating. The Yf is the primary measure of performance and is expressed in units of kWh/kW. It provides a relative measure of the energy produced and permits comparisons of PV systems of different size, design, or technology. If comparisons are made for different time periods or locations, it should be recognized that year-to-year variations in the solar resource will influence Yf. The PR factors out solar resource variations by dividing Yf by the solar radiation resource, Yr. This provides a dimensionless quantity that indicates the overall effect of losses and may be used to identify when operational problems occur or to evaluate long-term changes in performance. As part of an operational and maintenance program, the PR may be used to identify the existence of performance issues.

Chang Ying-Pin & Shen Chung-Huang [10] presented a paper about Effects of the Solar Module Installing Angles on the Output Power. In their paper they discussed that the output power increment of photovoltaic cells is mainly based on two factors. One is decreasing the cell modular temperature and the other is increasing the cells received solar illumination intensity. The former can be simply achieved by maintaining a proper radiating space between the modules and the ground. The later is more complicated. One needs to consider the installation of cell modules and then the maximum power output which can be derived. This paper was theoretically calculated the solar orbit and position at any time and any location. With the estimation of their model on the variation of solar illumination intensity, they can derive the output power of the solar modular cell at any tilt angle and orientation. The simulated results could be utilized in large scale photovoltaic power generation systems when considering placement for optimal installation. It also provides a useful evaluation for the output power of photovoltaic cells mounted on roofs and out walls of buildings.

Several grid connected photovoltaic system topologies are used in existing installations. D.Picault, B. Raison , and S. Bacha [11] presented a paper about proposes evaluation criteria for comparing and choosing topologies compatible with the user‟s demands. After presenting an overview of current architectures used in grid connected systems, five key points for comparison based on topology upgradeability, performance under shaded conditions, degraded mode operation, investment costs and ancillary service participation were discussed. The proposed method can be adapted to the user‟s particular needs and expectations of the photovoltaic plant.

These evaluation guidelines may assist grid-tied PV system users to choose the most convenient topology for their application by weighting the evaluation criteria.


It is seen from various earlier works that application of renewable energy will be forecast more and more in near future due to presence of Global Warming and clean renewable energy will reduce unacceptable air pollution and mainly to meet up the heavy energy demand. Grid connected system is well used in various parts of world, and many types of technology used is discussed as earlier work review.

The objective of this work is to estimate the potential of grid quality solar photovoltaic power in Patiala district of Punjab and finally develop a system based on the potential estimations made for a chosen area of 100 m². Equipment specifications are provided based on the availability of the components in India. In the last cost estimation of grid connected SPV power plant to show whether it is economically viable or not. So if we prefer Grid connected SPV system for our site, we have to analyses so many factors.




Grid interconnection of photovoltaic (PV) power generation system has the advantage of more effective utilization of generated power. However, the technical requirements from both the utility power system grid side and the PV system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Clarifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the problems are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems.

Grid interconnection of PV systems is accomplished through the inverter, which convert DC power generated from PV modules to AC power used for ordinary power supply for electrical equipments. Inverter system is therefore very important for grid connected PV systems.

Inverter technology is very important to have reliable and safety grid interconnection operation of PV system. It is also required to generate high quality power to AC utility system with reasonable cost. To meet with these requirements, up to date technologies of power electronics are applied for PV inverters. By means of high frequency switching of semiconductor devices with PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technologies, high efficiency conversion with high power factor and low harmonic distortion power can be generated. Reduction of inverter system cost is to be accomplished.

The greatest influence on system cost is the amount of PV modules installed. Other factors include maximum power demand, location, type and quality of equipment, extent of automatic controls and metering, provision of suitable accommodation for equipment and the amount of wiring needed. The cost of grid connected PV systems varies considerably.

As day by day the demand of electricity is increased and that much demand cannot be meeting up by the conventional power plants. And also these plants create pollution. If we look at the nature of load demand curve it is found that demand is increased from morning for different causes like opening the shops, markets, schools, colleges, offices etc. and that increased demand remains up to around 5 pm. And from the study of PV system it is found that, it is very much ideal to meet that increased energy demand by using Grid Connected Photovoltaic System.

That‟s why we go for grid connected topology.

Grid connected PV system


The basic Grid Connected PV system design has the following components:

Figure 5.2: Block diagram Grid Connected System

Ø PV ARRAY: A number of PV panels connected in series and/or in parallel giving a DC output out of the incident irradiance. Orientation and tilt of these panels are important design parameters, as well as shading from surrounding obstructions.
Ø INVERTER: A power converter that 'inverts' the DC power from the panels into AC power. The characteristics of the output signal should match the voltage, frequency and power quality limits in the supply network.
Ø TRANSFORMER: A transformer can boost up the ac output voltage from inverter when needed. Otherwise transformer less design is also acceptable.
Ø LOAD: Stands for the network connected appliances that are fed from the inverter, or, alternatively, from the grid.
Ø METERS: They account for the energy being drawn from or fed into the local supply network.
Ø PROTECTIVE DEVICES: Some protective devices is also installed, like under voltage relay, circuit breakers etc for resisting power flow from utility to SPV system.
Ø OTHER DEVICES: Other devices like dc-dc boost converter, ac filter can also be used for better performance.


Electricity is produced by the PV array most efficiently during sunny periods. At night or during cloudy periods, independent power systems use storage batteries to supply electricity needs. With grid interactive systems, the grid acts as the battery, supplying electricity when the PV array cannot. During the day, the power produced by the PV array supplies loads. An inverter converts direct current (DC) produced by the PV array to alternating current (AC) and transformer stepped up the voltage level as need for export to the grid. Grid interactive PV systems can vary substantially in size. However, all consist of solar arrays, inverters, electrical metering and components necessary for wiring and mounting.


There are some conditions to be satisfied for interfacing or synchronizing the SPV system with grid or utility. If proper synchronizing is not done, then SPV potential cannot be fed to the grid. The conditions for proper interfacing between two systems are discussed below:

Ø Phase sequence matching: Phase sequence of SPV system with conventional grid should be matched otherwise synchronization is not possible. For a three phase system three phases should be 120 deg phase apart from each other for both the system.
Ø Frequency matching: Frequency of the SPV system should be same as grid. Generally, grid is of 50 Hz frequency capacity, now if SPV systems frequency is slightly higher than frequency (0.1 to 0.5) synchronization is possible but SPV system frequency should not be less than grid frequency.
Ø Voltage matching: One of the vital point is voltage matching. Voltage level of both the system should same, otherwise synchronization is not possible.


The design for a grid connected photovoltaic system can be done in various ways like it can be made by small numbers of single phase units instead of single large three phase unit. Because this type of designing has some advantages over a large system design. The advantages are given below:

o Efficiency of Operation: It is logical to operate a small unit delivering rated output when the load demand is light. Then as load increases another unit is connected with the one already in operation. This keeps the plant loaded up to their rated capacity and increases efficiency of operation.
o Reliability or Continuity of service: Several smaller units are more reliable than a large single unit, since if one unit fails the continuity of supply can be maintained by remaining units. On the other hand, if the power stations consisted only of a single large unit, in the event of breakdown, there will be complete shutdown (failure of supply).
o Maintenance and repair: It is considered necessary to carry out regular inspection and maintenance so as to avoid possibility of failure. This is possible only when the unit is out of service which means that the remaining units should be capable to take care of load. Repairing of a unit is also more convenient and economical if there are several smaller units in the power station.
o Additions to power plant: The additional unit can be installed as and when required with the growth of load on power station.


There are two meters connected one is called import meter another is export meter. Now from these we can conclude.
Export meter reading – Import meter reading = power fed to the grid from SPV power plant
So now we can determine what amount of energy is fed to the grid from solar power. That much
of tariff will differ from conventional power tariff.


The first large sized (1MW) grid interactive PV power plant was installed in Lugo in California, USA. The second and largest (6.5 MW) plant was installed in Carissa Plains, California, USA. Also some other large sized plant are operating in various countries and many other proposed in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Australia, Spain and Japan. Several small capacity systems in the range of 25 KW – 200 KW are being experimentally tried out in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In India, 33 SPV, grid connected plants with total installed capacity of 2.54 MW have been installed so far, and another 550 KW aggregate installed capacity plants are undergoing installation process. A 200 KW grid interactive SPV plant installed recently at village Khatkarkalan, Dt- Nawanshahr of Punjab. Also a large no of small rooftop grid interactive systems are successfully being operated at various parts of the world. In next chapter we study about grid connected photovoltaic system.


Grid connected PV system can be designed in various ways, like with battery, without battery, with or without transformer etc. Here without battery grid interconnected system is used, because of short life time, large replacement cost, and increased installation cost. A transformer is used for boosting the ac output voltage and feeding to grid. There are two meters connected-one is called the import meter, the other is called the export meter. Thus the difference between the two meter readings gives the power fed to the grid from solar photovoltaic power plant. So using these meters we can easily determine what amount of energy is fed to the grid from solar power.
From the results obtained, we find that a 9 kWp solar photovoltaic power plant can be developed on 100 m² chosen area. Corresponding system sizing and specifications are provided along with the system design.

For the 9 kWp plant required no. of PV modules = (9000 /180) =50.

Now to form a solar photovoltaic power plant 50 modules are connected in series-parallel combination.

10 modules are connected in series and there are 5 parallel paths of 10 modules each. It also supports the fact that these 50 PV modules can be accommodated within 100 m2 available
So there are five 240 Volts combinations are connected in parallel. Therefore, we know that when strings are connected in parallel the voltage remains same but current will be add so

Total output voltage is from solar photovoltaic structure = 240 Volts. Total output current is from solar photovoltaic structure = 5 × 5 = 25 Amp.

This 240 Volts dc output from solar photovoltaic structure is the input of 3 phase inverter and it will convert the dc voltage into ac voltage. After the inverter a 3 phase transformer is connected this will boost up the ac voltage and feeds it to the grid. The design layout is shown in Figure.

Wiring diagram of PV array


5.1 PV Panel Model
Model of solar PV Panel contains an external control block permitting an uncomplicated variation of the model’ parameter. In this model,36 PV cells interconnected in series to form one module. As a result, the module voltage is obtained by multiplying the cell voltage by the cell number while the total module current is same as the cell’s current.

5.2 Reversed Current Saturation Model

5.3 Phase Current Equation Model

5.4 Load Current Equation Model

5.5 Output Graph of PV Panel Model

IV graph show the output voltage and current relation of the PV Panel


Chapter 06


It is expected that with present acceleration in the efforts on the part of manufacturers, designers, planners and utilities with adequate Governmental support, PV systems will within the next two decades occupy a place of pride in the country’s power sector, ensuring optimum utilization of the energy directly from the sun around the year. It is clear that the Grid Connected SPV system can provide some relief towards future energy demands. For which the radiation level measurements and analysis of various graphs from the solar radiation data is done in the fourth chapter. From the diurnal variation analysis of eight months we conclude that solar potential is maximum at noon. The April months gives the maximum monthly energy output out of eight months. It is found that the month of December produced the lowest solar radiation. Monthly and yearly outputs were calculated on the basis of 100 m² area. Considering the monthly peaks, the average peak output is calculated from where an estimate of the possible plant rating is made. The methodology adopted seems satisfactory for determining the possible plant capacity for an arbitrarily chosen area. The design described is based on the potential measured. System sizing and specifications are provided based on the design made. Finally, cost analysis is carried out for the proposed design.


Within the short span of time allotted for the project work could not be extended to whole year, only eight months of year solar radiation reading is analysis, The April months gives the maximum monthly energy output out of eight months but as we all know summer session start from April. Solar radiation level goes on increasing till July so Jun or July may be the months will give the maximum monthly energy output out of whole year. Thus this will increase maximum plant rating for our site. So in future there is a need of solar radiation data for whole year.

A detailed Cost analysis can be conducted considering carbon credit to show whether it is economically viable or not. Since the performance of PV system is strongly dependent on loss factors such as shading, PCS losses, mismatch, PV array temperature rise, etc. There is a necessity for reviewing these loss factors to evaluate and analyze accurately the performance of PV system.

This system can be designed with also some another electrical appliances like DC- DC booster for boosting up the voltage wherever is necessary, filter for suppressing the ripples etc. Another transformer less design also can be done. DC –DC choppers with variable duty cycle can be used along with filters. For direct application of DC that kind of system can be designed.

Intelligent devices like microprocessors, PLC (programmable logic controller) may be added to the system to keep the operating point (maximum power point) for maximum efficiency. To taken care of the uncertainty in the insolation level, use of fuzzy control can be done. Use of feedback path for automatic control-position control servo for changing the transformation ratio of variac can be used. A detailed performance analysis of the present system can be carried out to show its reliability as a future work.

Solar PV is a technology that offers a solution for a number of problems associated with fossil fuels. It is clean decentralized, indigenous and does not need continuous import of a resource. On top of that, India has among the highest Solar irradiance in the world which makes Solar PV all the more attractive for India. The state of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh also houses some of the best quality reserves of silica. India has a large number of cells and modules manufacturers. In spite of all above advantages Indian Photo Voltaic program is still in the infancy stage. One of the reasons could be absence of simple, action oriented and aggressive PV policy of the country both in the state and central level. More quickly we do it with the professionals more we protect our future energy security.