Design of an IC Engine Piston -Report & Presentation
Abstract: During the combustion of fuel in an IC engine very high temperature of the order of 2100-2200�C is produced inside the combustion chamber. The pressure generated inside the combustion chamber during its cycle of operation is 50-60 bar. This high pressure and temperature exerts a severe thermo structural loads on an IC engine components namely combustion chamber, piston and valves.
Re: Design of an IC Engine Piston -Report & Presentation
Nuclear Power Plants: Energy cannot be created nor be destroyed but it can be converted from one form to another. Nearly all the mass of the atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus at the center. The nucleus is composed principally of two sorts of particles: the proton, which carries the positive charge and the neutron, which is electrically neutral and has a mass slightly bigger than that of proton. Nuclear energy is the energy released from the nucleus of an atom. When nuclear reaction occurs, fission or fusion, it produces large amount of energy.
When the heaviest element, uranium was bombarded with neutrons, it was discovered that instead of inducing radioactivity as some other elements did, something different happened. This process is named fission. When fission occurred, not only were two lighter elements and a lot of radiation produced, but also more neutrons. These neutrons could in turn also cause fission, producing more neutrons and developing a chain reaction, which might spread throughout all the uranium present. A lot of energy is released in the process of fission or fusion.
This energy generated during controlled fission or fusion can be converted to produce heat to produce steam, which in turn may drive a prime mover thus producing mechanical work. This mechanical work may be utilized to produce electricity. A nuclear power plant utilizes the nuclear energy in a controlled manner to produce electricity. Nuclear power plants are powerful and efficient, have low greenhouse gas emission and produces cheap electricity. However they also produce radioactive wastes, which is difficult to dispose and have a high installation cost also having a tremendous negative impact on plant and animal lives. A number of international treaties and guidelines dictate the setting of nuclear power plants.
The US, France, Russia, Japan and South Korea are the top nuclear power generating countries in the world. The share of nuclear power in total power generated in the world is only 10% with 439 commissioned throughout the world. India currently has 21 nuclear power reactors with a total installed capacity of 5780 MW.
This report studies in detail the history of usage of nuclear power, the physics behind the nuclear fission and fusion process. The design and thermodynamics behind nuclear power plant is also described including the advantages and dis-advantages of nuclear energy. Finally the nuclear disasters and the current nuclear power scenario in the world and in India are described in detail.