Click Here Download Free Welding Metallurgy Second Edition Sindo Kou Book Pdf

1 Fusion Welding Processes 3
1.1 Overview 31.2 Oxyacetylene Welding 71.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding 111.4 Gas–Tungsten Arc Welding 131.5 Plasma Arc Welding 161.6 Gas–Metal Arc Welding 191.7 Flux-Core Arc Welding 221.8 Submerged Arc Welding 221.9 Electroslag Welding 241.10 Electron Beam Welding 271.11 Laser Beam Welding 29References 33Further Reading 34Problems 342 Heat Flow in Welding 372.1 Heat Source 372.2 Analysis of Heat Flow in Welding 472.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 532.4 Weld Thermal Simulator 58References 60Further Reading 62Problems 623 Chemical Reactions in Welding 653.1 Overview 653.2 Gas–Metal Reactions 683.3 Slag–Metal Reactions 82 References 92viiFurther Reading 95Problems 954 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding 974.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs 974.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools 1034.3 Metal Evaporation 1144.4 Active Flux GTAW 116References 117Further Reading 119Problems 1205 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue 1225.1 Residual Stresses 1225.2 Distortion 1265.3 Fatigue 1315.4 Case Studies 137References 140Further Reading 141Problems 141II THE FUSION ZONE 1436 Basic Solidification Concepts 1456.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification 1456.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling 1556.3 Microsegregation and Banding 1606.4 Effect of Cooling Rate 1636.5 Solidification Path 166References 167Further Reading 168Problems 1697Weld Metal Solidification I:Grain Structure1707.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 1707.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 1727.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone 1747.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure 1747.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms 1787.6 Grain Structure Control 187viii CONTENTSReferences 195Further Reading 197Problems 1978Weld Metal Solidification II:Microstructure within Grains1998.1 Solidification Modes 1998.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing 2048.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 2068.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains 209References 213Further Reading 213Problems 2149Post-Solidification Phase Transformations2169.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds 2169.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds 232References 239Further Reading 241Problems 24110 Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities 24310.1 Microsegregation 24310.2 Banding 24910.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity 25010.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary 25210.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal 255References 260Further Reading 261Problems 26111 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking 26311.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing 26311.2 Metallurgical Factors 26811.3 Mechanical Factors 28411.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking 28511.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan 295References 296Further Reading 299Problems 299CONTENTS ixIII THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE 30112 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone 30312.1 Evidence of Liquation 30312.2 Liquation Mechanisms 30412.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material 31412.4 Grain Boundary Segregation 31412.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes 31612.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons 318References 318Problems 31913 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone 32113.1 Liquation Cracking 32113.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility 32813.3 Hydrogen Cracking 32813.4 Remedies 330References 336Problems 338IV THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE 34114 Work-Hardened Materials 34314.1 Background 34314.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding 34714.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process 349References 351Further Reading 352Problems 35215 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys 35315.1 Background 35315.2 Al–Cu–Mg and Al–Mg–Si Alloys 35915.3 Al–Zn–Mg Alloys 36715.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys 370References 371Further Reading 372Problems 37216 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys 37516.1 Background 375x CONTENTS16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength 37916.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking 384References 390Further Reading 392Problems 39217 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon andAlloy Steels 39317.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams 39317.2 Carbon Steels 39617.3 Low-Alloy Steels 40417.4 Hydrogen Cracking 41017.5 Reheat Cracking 41817.6 Lamellar Tearing 42217.7 Case Studies 425References 427Further Reading 429Problems 43018 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels 43118.1 Classification of Stainless Steels 43118.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels 43318.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels 44618.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels 44918.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe 451References 452Further Reading 453Problems 454