### Measuring angles and setting out angles

"This is carried out in three stages: Centring the theodolites; Levelling the theodolites; Removal of parallax. The following procedure is recommended where it is assumed that the theodolite is to be centred over a nail in the top of a peg. This is a typical point or reference mark used in construction and setting out. " Read this topic

Circuit Analysis: Port Point of View 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Circuit Elements 1
1.3 SPICE Elements 2
1.4 Circuit Laws 3
1.6 Network Theorems 4
1.7 Two-Port Networks 8
1.8 Instantaneous, Average, and RMS Values 13
CHAPTER 2 Semiconductor Diodes 30
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 The Ideal Diode 30
2.3 Diode Terminal Characteristics 32
2.4 The Diode SPICE Model 33
2.5 Graphical Analysis 35
2.6 Equivalent-Circuit Analysis 38
2.7 Rectifier Applications 40
2.8 Waveform Filtering 42
2.9 Clipping and Clamping Operations 44
2.10 The Zener Diode 46
CHAPTER 3 Characteristics of Bipolar Junction Transistors 70
3.1 BJT Construction and Symbols 70
3.2 Common-Base Terminal Characteristics 71
3.3 Common-Emitter Terminal Characteristics 71
3.4 BJT SPICE Model 72
3.5 Current Relationships 77
3.6 Bias and DC Load Lines 78
3.7 Capacitors and AC Load Lines 82
CHAPTER 4 Characteristics of Field-Effect Transistors and Triodes 103
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 JFET Construction and Symbols 103
4.3 JFET Terminal Characteristics 103
v
4.4 JFET SPICE Model 105
4.5 JFET Bias Line and Load Line 107
4.6 Graphical Analysis for the JFET 110
4.7 MOSFET Construction and Symbols 110
4.8 MOSFET Terminal Characteristics 110
4.9 MOSFET SPICE Model 111
4.10 MOSFET Bias and Load Lines 114
4.11 Triode Construction and Symbols 115
4.12 Triode Terminal Characteristics and Bias 115
CHAPTER 5 Transistor Bias Considerations 136
5.1 Introduction 136
5.2 b Uncertainty and Temperature Effects in the BJT 136
5.3 Stability Factor Analysis 139
5.4 Nonlinear-Element Stabilization of BJT Circuits 139
5.5 Q-Point-Bounded Bias for the FET 140
5.6 Parameter Variation Analysis with SPICE 141
CHAPTER 6 Small-Signal Midfrequency BJT Amplifiers 163
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Hybrid-Parameter Models 163
6.3 Tee-Equivalent Circuit 166
6.4 Conversion of Parameters 167
6.5 Measures of Amplifier Goodness 168
6.6 CE Amplifier Analysis 168
6.7 CB Amplifier Analysis 170
6.8 CC Amplifier Analysis 171
6.9 BJT Amplifier Analysis with SPICE 172
CHAPTER 7 Small-Signal Midfrequency FET and Triode Amplifiers 200
7.1 Introduction 200
7.2 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits for the FET 200
7.3 CS Amplifier Analysis 201
7.4 CD Amplifier Analysis 202
7.5 CG Amplifier Analysis 203
7.6 FET Amplifier Gain Calculation with SPICE 203
7.7 Graphical and Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Triode
Amplifiers 205
CHAPTER 8 Frequency Effects in Amplifiers 226
8.1 Introduction 226
8.2 Bode Plots and Frequency Response 227
8.3 Low-Frequency Effect of Bypass and Coupling Capacitors 229
8.4 High-Frequency Hybrid- BJT Model 232
8.5 High-Frequency FET Models 234
8.6 Miller Capacitance 235
8.7 Frequency Response Using SPICE 236
vi Contents
CHAPTER 9 Operational Amplifiers 258
9.1 Introduction 258
9.2 Ideal and Practical OP Amps 258
9.3 Inverting Amplifier 259
9.4 Noninverting Amplifier 260
9.5 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 260
9.6 Summer Amplifier 261
9.7 Differentiating Amplifier 262
9.8 Integrating Amplifier 262
9.9 Logarithmic Amplifier 263
9.10 Filter Applications 264
9.11 Function Generators and Signal Conditioners 264
9.12 SPICE Op Amp Model 265
CHAPTER 10 Switched Mode Power Supplies 287
10.1 Introduction 287
10.2 Analytical Techniques 287
10.3 Buck Converter 289
10.4 Boost Converter 290
10.5 Buck-Boost Converter 292
10.6 SPICE Analysis of SMPS 294
Circuit Analysis: Port Point of View 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Circuit Elements 1
1.3 SPICE Elements 2
1.4 Circuit Laws 3
1.6 Network Theorems 4
1.7 Two-Port Networks 8
1.8 Instantaneous, Average, and RMS Values 13
CHAPTER 2 Semiconductor Diodes 30
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 The Ideal Diode 30
2.3 Diode Terminal Characteristics 32
2.4 The Diode SPICE Model 33
2.5 Graphical Analysis 35
2.6 Equivalent-Circuit Analysis 38
2.7 Rectifier Applications 40
2.8 Waveform Filtering 42
2.9 Clipping and Clamping Operations 44
2.10 The Zener Diode 46
CHAPTER 3 Characteristics of Bipolar Junction Transistors 70
3.1 BJT Construction and Symbols 70
3.2 Common-Base Terminal Characteristics 71
3.3 Common-Emitter Terminal Characteristics 71
3.4 BJT SPICE Model 72
3.5 Current Relationships 77
3.6 Bias and DC Load Lines 78
3.7 Capacitors and AC Load Lines 82
CHAPTER 4 Characteristics of Field-Effect Transistors and Triodes 103
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 JFET Construction and Symbols 103
4.3 JFET Terminal Characteristics 103
v
4.4 JFET SPICE Model 105
4.5 JFET Bias Line and Load Line 107
4.6 Graphical Analysis for the JFET 110
4.7 MOSFET Construction and Symbols 110
4.8 MOSFET Terminal Characteristics 110
4.9 MOSFET SPICE Model 111
4.10 MOSFET Bias and Load Lines 114
4.11 Triode Construction and Symbols 115
4.12 Triode Terminal Characteristics and Bias 115
CHAPTER 5 Transistor Bias Considerations 136
5.1 Introduction 136
5.2 b Uncertainty and Temperature Effects in the BJT 136
5.3 Stability Factor Analysis 139
5.4 Nonlinear-Element Stabilization of BJT Circuits 139
5.5 Q-Point-Bounded Bias for the FET 140
5.6 Parameter Variation Analysis with SPICE 141
CHAPTER 6 Small-Signal Midfrequency BJT Amplifiers 163
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Hybrid-Parameter Models 163
6.3 Tee-Equivalent Circuit 166
6.4 Conversion of Parameters 167
6.5 Measures of Amplifier Goodness 168
6.6 CE Amplifier Analysis 168
6.7 CB Amplifier Analysis 170
6.8 CC Amplifier Analysis 171
6.9 BJT Amplifier Analysis with SPICE 172
CHAPTER 7 Small-Signal Midfrequency FET and Triode Amplifiers 200
7.1 Introduction 200
7.2 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits for the FET 200
7.3 CS Amplifier Analysis 201
7.4 CD Amplifier Analysis 202
7.5 CG Amplifier Analysis 203
7.6 FET Amplifier Gain Calculation with SPICE 203
7.7 Graphical and Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Triode
Amplifiers 205
CHAPTER 8 Frequency Effects in Amplifiers 226
8.1 Introduction 226
8.2 Bode Plots and Frequency Response 227
8.3 Low-Frequency Effect of Bypass and Coupling Capacitors 229
8.4 High-Frequency Hybrid- BJT Model 232
8.5 High-Frequency FET Models 234
8.6 Miller Capacitance 235
8.7 Frequency Response Using SPICE 236
vi Contents
CHAPTER 9 Operational Amplifiers 258
9.1 Introduction 258
9.2 Ideal and Practical OP Amps 258
9.3 Inverting Amplifier 259
9.4 Noninverting Amplifier 260
9.5 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 260
9.6 Summer Amplifier 261
9.7 Differentiating Amplifier 262
9.8 Integrating Amplifier 262
9.9 Logarithmic Amplifier 263
9.10 Filter Applications 264
9.11 Function Generators and Signal Conditioners 264
9.12 SPICE Op Amp Model 265
CHAPTER 10 Switched Mode Power Supplies 287
10.1 Introduction 287
10.2 Analytical Techniques 287
10.3 Buck Converter 289
10.4 Boost Converter 290
10.5 Buck-Boost Converter 292
10.6 SPICE Analysis of SMPS 294

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i shall post soon ,i m very busy in my job now

i shall post soon ,i m very busy in my job now