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      Doc 32 Cryogenic engine in rockets seminar report/ppt download

      Introduction

      Cryogenics is the study of the production of extremely cold temperatures. This field of science also looks at what happens to a wide variety of materials from metals to gases when they are exposed to these temperatures.

      Cryogenics is a branch of physics concerned with the production of very low temperatures and the effects of these temperatures on different substances and materials.

      The temperatures studied in cryogenics are those below -243.67 degrees Fahrenheit (120 Kelvin); such low temperatures do not occur in nature.


      These low temperatures have been used to liquefy atmospheric gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, argon, helium, and neon. The gases are condensed, collected, distilled and separated.

      Methane is used in liquid natural gas (LNG), and oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are used in rocket fuels and other aerospace and defense applications, in metallurgy and in various chemical processes.

      Helium is used in diving decompression chambers and to maintain suitably low temperatures for superconducting magnets, and neon is used in lighting.



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      Ni Cryogenics is the study of how to get to low temperatures and of how materials behave when they get there.

      Besides the familiar temperature scales of Fahrenheit and Celsius (Centigrade), cryogenicists use other temperature scales, the Kelvin and Rankine temperature scale.

      Although the apparatus used for spacecraft is specialized, some of the general approaches are the same as used in everyday life. Cryogenics involves the study of low temperatures from about 100 Kelvin to absolute zero.


      One interesting feature of materials at low temperatures is that the air condenses into a liquid. The two main gases in air are oxygen and nitrogen. Liquid oxygen, "lox" for short, is used in rocket propulsion

      . Liquid nitrogen is used as a coolant. Helium, which is much rarer than oxygen or nitrogen, is also used as a coolant. In more detail, cryogenics is the study of how to produce low temperatures or also the study of what happens to materials when you have cooled them down.



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