Introduction : Fossil fuels have supported the industrialization and economic growth of countries during the past century, but it is clear that they cannot indefinitely sustain a global economy.

The infrastructure changes needed to address our global energy needs will be far more extensive and will likely require changes not only to our infrastructure but also to our lifestyle.

Changes will affect everything from home heating and lighting, to where we prefer to live and work and how we get there.

The costs of energy and how much energy we use will come to dominate our economy and our lifestyle in the coming decades.

A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.

A microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms.

A typical microbial fuel cell consists of anode and cathode compartments separated by a membrane. In the anode compartment, fuel is oxidized by microorganisms, generating electrons and protons.

Electrons are transferred to the cathode compartment through an external electric circuit, and the protons are transferred to the cathode compartment through the membrane.

Electrons and protons are consumed in the cathode compartment, combining with oxygen to form water. In general, there are two types of microbial fuel cells, mediator and mediator-less microbial fuel cells.

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