Abstract

The economical growth of any nation depends on the infrastructure development of that country and mainly on the interlinking between the various parts of the country. So for the proper development of the country, it’s necessary to consider the connecting constituents.
This paper deals with project of advances in the interlinking between the New York and London, which is under planning.
Imagine, The magnetic leviated train which could take you from New York to London in only 54 minutes, but you have to go with 5000mph trough 3100 miles. Long tunnel that was itself floating in the Atlantic Ocean. How might that work?
It would be possible with underwater tunnel, which traverses the ocean. It would be suspended from the ocean floor by wires. The tunnel would sit about 30M (about 100ft) below the surface of the water, deep enough that a large ship would not have any problems passing over it. Also, deep enough so that it would be below the rough seas above. The tunnel would be anchored to the ocean floor to keep it from floating up or moving significantly. The construction would be done in pieces and extruded into place.
Further, to achieve such a high speed in the conduit, the vacuum is created in the tunnel, which totally eliminates air resistance to train.
Thus, this tunnel will set new limits of transportation engineering and increase the efficiency of traveling.



Group 3:- Advances in transportation engineering


Transatlantic Floating Tunnel

[IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG][IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG][IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG][IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG][IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG][IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG]

Presented by:-

Charudatta A. Mahajan

Yogita U. Borole
{T.E. CIVIL}


Introduction

New York and London are two major cities from long ago. In the world. There are many people who travel between these two cities. The interconnectivity of these two cities is of prime importance in growth of U.S.A and U.K. Therefore these are always efforts have been taken by two government to reduce the time ready to travel between two cities.
In older days, people need 4 days to travel with ship, with advances in technology; 8 hours are required with normal airway. This time is further reduced to 3 hours with concord plane. But now a day these concord planes become absolute and minimum time required is 8 hours.
Therefore, the scientist and engineers always were trying to reduce that time.
Lots of investigations and experiments are done and the totally new concept of floating tunnel through Atlantic Ocean of length 3100 miles is born. What is that concept and how it will come to reality? That we will see in this paper.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif[/IMG]




Components of tunnel
Following are the main components of this tunnel-
1) Gasket/shell
2) Sea anchors
3) Utility conduits and service port
4) Vacuum pumps
5) Maglev train
6) Guide ways
Brief information about these components is as

1) Gasket / shell –

The tunnel is 30m below the water level. Therefore the shell is required to be done waterproof and should be able to resist the salty seawater.
For this purpose it is made in the 4 different layers. The outermost part is made of stainless steel. The second and third layer is of foam to float the tunnel easily in water. The inner layer is made of concrete to strengthen the tunnel.
Secondly because of very long length of tunnel (3100miles) it is not possible to cast it on situ. Therefore the construction would be done in 54000 precast pieces and extruded into place. In other words, as new sections are built, the tunnel is extended or dragged, floating it into place over time. Alternatively, sections could be floating into place and attached to the end.


2) Sea anchors-
A floating tunnel has never been built, even in the small scale. For the work across the Atlantic Ocean it will require that each section be anchored to sea floor with the tethers more than 100000 of which would be required.
They would have to let the tunnel float 150m below the surface, ideal to avoid ships and still minimize pressure, and also to sway a bit under pressure.
The steel tethers are anchored to seabed as shown in fig.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image005.jpg[/IMG]






First they are placed on seabed and then hammered or inserted in the bed. Thus water gets out from block and create partial vacuum, which holds the anchors very firm to the bed level.
The tunnel would have to withstand some of the Atlantic strongest currents, including part of gulf streams. Its tethering system would allow it to sway with the moving water.

3)Vacuum pump-

The maglev train is planned to travel with thrilling speed of 5000mph on such a high speed, it cannot encounter air resistance. Therefore, the vacuum is created through out the tunnel length, but creating and maintaining the vacuum in such a long tunnel of 3100 miles is not so easy job. With the current equipments, 50 propellers of most powerful boing jet, required to evacuate the air continuously for 15 days. Only this is not the job, massive vacuum pumps are installed in the tunnel itself for entire 3100 miles length.
4) Service port and utility conduits-
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.jpg[/IMG] The tunnel is powered by electricity, which would have to be accessible for 3100 miles. The utility conduits would house the electrical wiring.
The service port is provided above and below the track conduits. They are provided for electric power, communication and access for repairs.
5) Guide ways-
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/VINNY!~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpg[/IMG]Guide ways are provided for the traveling of train. They are provided in the conduits. One for London to New York, and one for the New York to London and third track will be used in the emergency.
6) Maglev train-
The journey from London to New York in 54 min. only possible when you travel with the speed 5000 mph. The speed is too much high than max. Speed of the current available technology.
Studies are carried out to find how we can increase the speed up to such a high speed.
With the available technology of train running on the rails, it is impossible to achieve this speed. Because tractive resistance offered by the track is too much. Therefore the “maglev train technology” (bullet train) is used to over come this problem.
The bullet train is not run over the track but runs slightly above the track (nearly about 1m) thus practically no friction between the track and train. The train is lifted above by magnetic force and it travels with magnetic field variation.
The speed is much high in vacuum, thus vacuum is created in tunnel, because there is no air resistance to train in vacuum.
The only problem on traveling on such a high speed that, the gravitational force is much increased. To overcome this problem, the seats of the train are pivoting and rotating as such each car would be like its own sealed space ship.






Problems to be faced
1) Fire-
If in any case, fire took place in train, it is impossible to face the smoke produced because of no output in between. So, fires fighting with the high advances are required.
2) Collision-
If in case, collision of two trains took place, it is very difficult to rescues these peoples.
3) Stoppage-
No stoppage possible in between.
4) Impact of object on tunnel from outside-
There may be collision of submarine on the tunnel. To reduce this possibility, geo positioning techniques to watch in water for submarines, animals, volcanic eruption, etc.
5) Cost-
Cost of construction is too much high. That it is much greater than annual economy of the countries.






Conclusion:
With the advances in the construction technology, we can increase the speed of traveling and make the transportation more effective. With the help of construction sector, we can make our country more nucleuses.


References :

www.discovery.com
www.google.com