THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO)

The United Nation Organisation came into existence on 24th October 1945.The name was devised by the then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
At present, there are 192 members in the UNO. Taiwan and Vatican City are not the members. Vatican City is the permanent observer for the UN.


Headquarter- First Avenue at 46th Street, UN Plaza, New York City-10017.




Official Languages- English, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, French, and Chinese (Mandarin)


The principal organs of the UNO are:
1. General Assembly - The General Assembly consists of representatives of the member nations. Each state has one vote, but may send 5 representatives. The assembly meets at least once in a year. Special sessions may be summoned by the Secretary General, on a request by the Security Council.
2. Security Council - It consists of 15 members, each of which has one vote.There are 5 permanent and 10 non permanent members. The 5 permanent members are USA, Russia, UK, France and China. The 10 non permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a period of 2 years. The permanent members have the power to veto any decision.
3. The Secretariat - It is composed of the Secretary General, the Chief Administrative Officer of the organisation and an international staff appointed by him under the regulations of the General Assembly. However the Secretary General, the High commissioner of Refugees and the Managing Director of funds is appointed by the General Assembly.
4. Trusteeship Council - The Charter of the UN provides for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may have been placed thereunder by individual trusteeship agreements.
5. International Court - The International Court of Justice was created by an international treaty, the statute of the Court, which forms an integral part of the UN charter, and all the members are ipso facto parties to the statute of the court. There are 15 judges, appointed for a 9 year term. The expenses of the Court are borne by the UN.
6. Economic and Social Council - It is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out the functions of the UN with regard to international, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. The Economic and Social council consists of 54 member States elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.


UN Secretary Generals
1. Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946-53 2. Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953-61 3. U Thant (Burma) 1961-71 4. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81 5. Javier Perez De Gueller (Peru) 1982-91 6. Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1992-96 7. Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2007 8. Ban Ki Moon (South Korea) 2007- till date


Specific UN Agencies and their Headquarters
1.
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - UNDP is the UN‘s global development network advocating change and connecting countries to share knowledge and resources which helps build a better life in countries across the globe. Presently it has offices in 166 member countries. UNDP is headquartered at New York, US.
2.
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – UNICEF was initially set up in 1946 as an emergency fund to provide post-war relief to children in different countries. Today, as a children’s fund, UNICEF concentrates its activities on providing assistance to children and mothers in developing countries, aiming at improving their quality of life. UNICEF is headquartered at New York, US.
3.
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – UNESCO was founded on 16 November 1945 to assist developing countries in their educational projects, to help the countries in scientific development and to build cultural understanding between the nations. UNESCO is headquartered at Paris, France.
4.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) – IMF is an international organisation having 184 member countries. It was established in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation and exchange stability between nations which in turn would promote economic growth and increase employment opportunities. IMF also provides temporary financial assistance to its member countries to ease their balance of payment. IMF is headquartered at Washington DC, US.
5.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, commonly known as the World Bank) – The ‘World Bank’ was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, but begun operations in 1946. It aims at providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the World. Presently World Bank has 184 member countries and is headquartered at Washinton DC, US.
6.
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) – WTO was formed as an international trade body to replace General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in 1995. WTO is the only international body dealing with rules of trade between the countries to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. Cape Verde has been the most recent member of the WTO since 23 July 2008.
For the entire list of members go to
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/...f_e/org6_e.htm
7.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – IAEA was set up in 1957. It is presently headquartered at Vienna, Austria.
8.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – FAO was set up in 1945. It is presently headquartered at Rome, Italy.
9.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) – W.H.O was set up in 1946. It is presently headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
10.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – IFC is an affiliate of the World Bank, and was set up in 1956. It is headquartered at Washinton DC, US.
11.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – ITU was set up in 1932. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
12.
The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) – ICAO was set up in 1944. It is headquartered at Montreal, Canada.
13.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU) – UPU was set up in 1875. It is headquartered at Berne, Switzerland.
14.
The International Labor Organisation (ILO) – ILO was set uo in 1919. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
15.
The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) – IMO was set up in 1948. It is headquartered at London, UK.

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